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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:37 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15144
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameKetoprofen
DescriptionKetoprofen is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a propionic acid derivative and is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAIA) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. The anti-inflammatory effects of ketoprofen are believed to be due to inhibition cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme involved in prostaglandin synthesis via the arachidonic acid pathway. This results in decreased levels of prostaglandins that mediate pain, fever and inflammation. Ketoprofen is a non-specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor and inhibition of COX-1 is thought to confer some of its side effects, such as GI upset and ulceration. Ketoprofen is thought to have anti-bradykinin activity, as well as lysosomal membrane-stabilizing action. Antipyretic effects may be due to action on the hypothalamus, resulting in an increased peripheral blood flow, vasodilation, and subsequent heat dissipation.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-(3-Benzoylphenyl)propionic acidChEBI
3-Benzoyl-alpha-methylbenzeneacetic acidChEBI
3-Benzoylhydratropic acidChEBI
L'acide (benzoyl-3-phenyl)-2-propioniqueChEBI
m-Benzoylhydratropic acidChEBI
OrudisChEBI
2-(3-Benzoylphenyl)propionateGenerator
3-Benzoyl-a-methylbenzeneacetateGenerator
3-Benzoyl-a-methylbenzeneacetic acidGenerator
3-Benzoyl-alpha-methylbenzeneacetateGenerator
3-Benzoyl-α-methylbenzeneacetateGenerator
3-Benzoyl-α-methylbenzeneacetic acidGenerator
3-BenzoylhydratropateGenerator
m-BenzoylhydratropateGenerator
Chemical FormulaC16H14O3
Average Molecular Weight254.2806
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight254.094294314
IUPAC Name2-(3-benzoylphenyl)propanoic acid
Traditional Nameketoprofen
CAS Registry Number22071-15-4
SMILES
CC(C(O)=O)C1=CC(=CC=C1)C(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H14O3/c1-11(16(18)19)13-8-5-9-14(10-13)15(17)12-6-3-2-4-7-12/h2-11H,1H3,(H,18,19)
InChI KeyInChIKey=DKYWVDODHFEZIM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzophenones. These are organic compounds containing a ketone attached to two phenyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzophenones
Direct ParentBenzophenones
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzophenone
  • Diphenylmethane
  • 2-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Phenylacetate
  • Acetophenone
  • Aryl ketone
  • Benzoyl
  • Ketone
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Analgesics
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • Anti-inflammatory Agents
  • Antipyretics
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
  • Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents (NSAIAs)
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point94 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility2.13e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP3.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.021 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.29ALOGPS
logP3.61ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity72.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.56 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ketoprofen PathwaySMP00085Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01009
  • Not Applicable
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.688 +/- 0.530 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.425 +/- 0.279 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01009
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01009
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3693
KEGG Compound IDC01716
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkKetoprofen
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15144
Metagene LinkHMDB15144
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3825
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID6128
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kantor TG: Ketoprofen: a review of its pharmacologic and clinical properties. Pharmacotherapy. 1986 May-Jun;6(3):93-103. [3526298 ]
  2. Mazieres B: Topical ketoprofen patch. Drugs R D. 2005;6(6):337-44. [16274258 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Mediates the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonate. May have a role as a major mediator of inflammation and/or a role for prostanoid signaling in activity-dependent plasticity.
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular weight:
68995.625
References
  1. Kay-Mugford P, Benn SJ, LaMarre J, Conlon P: In vitro effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on cyclooxygenase activity in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 2000 Jul;61(7):802-10. [10895904 ]
  2. Sommerauer M, Ates M, Guhring H, Brune K, Amann R, Peskar BA: Ketoprofen-induced cyclooxygenase inhibition in renal medulla and platelets of rats treated with caffeine. Pharmacology. 2001;63(4):234-9. [11729362 ]
  3. Levoin N, Chretien F, Lapicque F, Chapleur Y: Synthesis and biological testing of Acyl-CoA-ketoprofen conjugates as selective irreversible inhibitors of COX-2. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002 Mar;10(3):753-7. [11814865 ]
  4. Zuniga J, Fuenzalida M, Guerrero A, Illanes J, Dabancens A, Diaz E, Lemus D: Effects of steroidal and non steroidal drugs on the neovascularization response induced by tumoral TA3 supernatant on CAM from chick embryo. Biol Res. 2003;36(2):233-40. [14513718 ]
  5. Wilson JE, Chandrasekharan NV, Westover KD, Eager KB, Simmons DL: Determination of expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 isozymes in canine tissues and their differential sensitivity to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Am J Vet Res. 2004 Jun;65(6):810-8. [15198222 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May play an important role in regulating or promoting cell proliferation in some normal and neoplastically transformed cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular weight:
68685.82
References
  1. Parsadaniantz SM, Lebeau A, Duval P, Grimaldi B, Terlain B, Kerdelhue B: Effects of the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 1 or 2 or 5-lipoxygenase on the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis induced by interleukin-1beta in the male Rat. J Neuroendocrinol. 2000 Aug;12(8):766-73. [10929089 ]
  2. Kurahashi K, Shirahase H, Nakamura S, Tarumi T, Koshino Y, Wang AM, Nishihashi T, Shimizu Y: Nicotine-induced contraction in the rat coronary artery: possible involvement of the endothelium, reactive oxygen species and COX-1 metabolites. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2001 Oct;38 Suppl 1:S21-5. [11811354 ]
  3. Zuniga J, Fuenzalida M, Guerrero A, Illanes J, Dabancens A, Diaz E, Lemus D: Effects of steroidal and non steroidal drugs on the neovascularization response induced by tumoral TA3 supernatant on CAM from chick embryo. Biol Res. 2003;36(2):233-40. [14513718 ]
  4. Martic M, Tatic I, Markovic S, Kujundzic N, Kostrun S: Synthesis, biological activity and molecular modeling studies of novel COX-1 inhibitors. Eur J Med Chem. 2004 Feb;39(2):141-51. [14987823 ]
  5. Levoin N, Blondeau C, Guillaume C, Grandcolas L, Chretien F, Jouzeau JY, Benoit E, Chapleur Y, Netter P, Lapicque F: Elucidation of the mechanism of inhibition of cyclooxygenases by acyl-coenzyme A and acylglucuronic conjugates of ketoprofen. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Nov 15;68(10):1957-69. [15476667 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor to interleukin-8, which is a powerful neutrophils chemotactic factor. Binding of IL-8 to the receptor causes activation of neutrophils. This response is mediated via a G-protein that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor binds to IL-8 with a high affinity and to MGSA (GRO) with a low affinity
Gene Name:
CXCR1
Uniprot ID:
P25024
Molecular weight:
39790.7
References
  1. Allegretti M, Bertini R, Cesta MC, Bizzarri C, Di Bitondo R, Di Cioccio V, Galliera E, Berdini V, Topai A, Zampella G, Russo V, Di Bello N, Nano G, Nicolini L, Locati M, Fantucci P, Florio S, Colotta F: 2-Arylpropionic CXC chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1) ligands as novel noncompetitive CXCL8 inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2005 Jun 30;48(13):4312-31. [15974585 ]
  2. Bizzarri C, Pagliei S, Brandolini L, Mascagni P, Caselli G, Transidico P, Sozzani S, Bertini R: Selective inhibition of interleukin-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis by ketoprofen isomers. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001 Jun 1;61(11):1429-37. [11331079 ]
  3. Wang LM, Toyoshima A, Mineshita S, Wang XX, Yamamoto T, Nomura Y, Yang L, Koikei Y, Shiba K, Honda Y: The anti-inflammatory effects of ketoprofen in animal experiments. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1997;23(1):1-6. [9093816 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates saturable uptake of estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and related compounds
Gene Name:
SLC22A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9NSA0
Molecular weight:
59970.9
References
  1. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [12130730 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
References
  1. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. [11883641 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May be an organic anion pump relevant to cellular detoxification
Gene Name:
ABCC4
Uniprot ID:
O15439
Molecular weight:
149525.3
References
  1. Reid G, Wielinga P, Zelcer N, van der Heijden I, Kuil A, de Haas M, Wijnholds J, Borst P: The human multidrug resistance protein MRP4 functions as a prostaglandin efflux transporter and is inhibited by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 5;100(16):9244-9. Epub 2003 Jun 30. [12835412 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Cihlar T, Ho ES: Fluorescence-based assay for the interaction of small molecules with the human renal organic anion transporter 1. Anal Biochem. 2000 Jul 15;283(1):49-55. [10929807 ]
  2. Mulato AS, Ho ES, Cihlar T: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs efficiently reduce the transport and cytotoxicity of adefovir mediated by the human renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):10-5. [10991954 ]
  3. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [12130730 ]
  4. Uwai Y, Saito H, Inui K: Interaction between methotrexate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in organic anion transporter. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Dec 1;409(1):31-6. [11099697 ]
  5. Apiwattanakul N, Sekine T, Chairoungdua A, Kanai Y, Nakajima N, Sophasan S, Endou H: Transport properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by organic anion transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):847-54. [10220563 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha- ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular weight:
60025.0
References
  1. Sekine T, Cha SH, Tsuda M, Apiwattanakul N, Nakajima N, Kanai Y, Endou H: Identification of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 expressed predominantly in the liver. FEBS Lett. 1998 Jun 12;429(2):179-82. [9650585 ]
  2. Morita N, Kusuhara H, Sekine T, Endou H, Sugiyama Y: Functional characterization of rat organic anion transporter 2 in LLC-PK1 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Sep;298(3):1179-84. [11504818 ]
  3. Mulato AS, Ho ES, Cihlar T: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs efficiently reduce the transport and cytotoxicity of adefovir mediated by the human renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct;295(1):10-5. [10991954 ]
  4. Takeda M, Khamdang S, Narikawa S, Kimura H, Hosoyamada M, Cha SH, Sekine T, Endou H: Characterization of methotrexate transport and its drug interactions with human organic anion transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug;302(2):666-71. [12130730 ]