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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:40 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15156
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTrichlormethiazide
DescriptionTrichlormethiazide is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of hydrochlorothiazide. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p830)Trichlormethiazide appears to block the active reabsorption of chloride and possibly sodium in the ascending loop of Henle, altering electrolyte transfer in the proximal tubule. This results in excretion of sodium, chloride, and water and, hence, diuresis. As a diuretic, Trichloromethiazide inhibits active chloride reabsorption at the early distal tubule via the Na-Cl cotransporter, resulting in an increase in the excretion of sodium, chloride, and water. Thiazides like Trichloromethiazide also inhibit sodium ion transport across the renal tubular epithelium through binding to the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride transporter. This results in an increase in potassium excretion via the sodium-potassium exchange mechanism. The antihypertensive mechanism of Trichloromethiazide is less well understood although it may be mediated through its action on carbonic anhydrases in the smooth muscle or through its action on the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel, also found in the smooth muscle.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
NaquaKegg
Chemical FormulaC8H8Cl3N3O4S2
Average Molecular Weight380.656
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight378.90218026
IUPAC Name6-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-1λ⁶,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide
Traditional Nametrichlormethiazide
CAS Registry Number133-67-5
SMILES
NS(=O)(=O)C1=C(Cl)C=C2NC(NS(=O)(=O)C2=C1)C(Cl)Cl
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H8Cl3N3O4S2/c9-3-1-4-6(2-5(3)19(12,15)16)20(17,18)14-8(13-4)7(10)11/h1-2,7-8,13-14H,(H2,12,15,16)
InChI KeyInChIKey=LMJSLTNSBFUCMU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzothiadiazines. These are organic compounds containing a benzene fused to a thiadiazine ring (a six-member ring with two nitrogen atoms and a sulfur atom).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassThiadiazines
Sub ClassBenzothiadiazines
Direct ParentBenzothiadiazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzothiadiazine
  • Benzenesulfonamide
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Diuretics
  • Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4.15e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP0.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.41 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.86ALOGPS
logP0.97ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.32ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area118.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity77.44 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.97 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Trichlormethiazide PathwaySMP00121Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01021
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01021
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01021
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5359
KEGG Compound IDC07767
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15156
Metagene LinkHMDB15156
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5560
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID234100
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. This action creates the electrochemical gradient of sodium and potassium ions, providing the energy for active transport of various nutrients.
Gene Name:
ATP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P05023
Molecular weight:
112895.01
References
  1. Takahashi N, Kondo Y, Fujiwara I, Ito O, Igarashi Y, Abe K: Characterization of Na+ transport across the cell membranes of the ascending thin limb of Henle's loop. Kidney Int. 1995 Mar;47(3):789-94. [7752578 ]
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular weight:
28870.0
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone, indapamide, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II, when several water molecules make the difference. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Feb 1;17(3):1214-21. Epub 2008 Dec 24. [19119014 ]
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular weight:
29245.895
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone, indapamide, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II, when several water molecules make the difference. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Feb 1;17(3):1214-21. Epub 2008 Dec 24. [19119014 ]
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular weight:
35032.075
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Temperini C, Cecchi A, Scozzafava A, Supuran CT: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Comparison of chlorthalidone, indapamide, trichloromethiazide, and furosemide X-ray crystal structures in adducts with isozyme II, when several water molecules make the difference. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Feb 1;17(3):1214-21. Epub 2008 Dec 24. [19119014 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Electrically silent transporter system. Mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption. Plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume
Gene Name:
SLC12A1
Uniprot ID:
Q13621
Molecular weight:
121449.1
References
  1. Li J, Wang DH: Function and regulation of epithelial sodium transporters in the kidney of a salt-sensitive hypertensive rat model. J Hypertens. 2007 May;25(5):1065-72. [17414671 ]
  2. Hasannejad H, Takeda M, Taki K, Shin HJ, Babu E, Jutabha P, Khamdang S, Aleboyeh M, Onozato ML, Tojo A, Enomoto A, Anzai N, Narikawa S, Huang XL, Niwa T, Endou H: Interactions of human organic anion transporters with diuretics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Mar;308(3):1021-9. Epub 2003 Nov 10. [14610216 ]
  3. Smith SM: Thiazide diuretics. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 18;362(7):659-60; author reply 660. [20187262 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]