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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:41 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15159
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMycophenolic acid
DescriptionMycophenolic acid is an an immunosuppresant drug and potent anti-proliferative, and can be used in place of the older anti-proliferative azathioprine. It is usually used as part of triple therapy including a calcineurin inhibitor (ciclosporin or tacrolimus) and prednisolone. It is also useful in research for the selection of animal cells that express the E. coli gene coding for XGPRT (xanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(e)-6-(4-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-5-phthalanyl)-4-methyl-4-hexenoic acidChEBI
Acide mycophenoliqueChEBI
acido MicofenolicoChEBI
Acidum mycophenolicumChEBI
micofenolico acidoChEBI
MycophenolateChEBI
MycophenolsaeureChEBI
(e)-6-(4-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-5-phthalanyl)-4-methyl-4-hexenoateGenerator
Mycophenoic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC17H20O6
Average Molecular Weight320.3371
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight320.125988372
IUPAC Name(4E)-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoic acid
Traditional Namemycophenolic acid
CAS Registry Number24280-93-1
SMILES
COC1=C(C\C=C(/C)CCC(O)=O)C(O)=C2C(=O)OCC2=C1C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C17H20O6/c1-9(5-7-13(18)19)4-6-11-15(20)14-12(8-23-17(14)21)10(2)16(11)22-3/h4,20H,5-8H2,1-3H3,(H,18,19)/b9-4+
InChI KeyInChIKey=HPNSFSBZBAHARI-RUDMXATFSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phthalides. These are compounds containing a 3-hydrocarbylidene-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one moiety,.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIsobenzofurans
Sub ClassIsobenzofuranones
Direct ParentPhthalides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phthalide
  • Methoxyphenol
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Anisole
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Heterocyclic fatty acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Benzenoid
  • Unsaturated fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Drug metabolite
Biofunction
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Waste products
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point141 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.55e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP2.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.035 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.36ALOGPS
logP3.53ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.57ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area93.06 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity85.23 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.95 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Mycophenolic Acid Metabolism PathwaySMP00652Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01024
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01024
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01024
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00629
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID393865
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMycophenolic_acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15159
Metagene LinkHMDB15159
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound446541
PDB IDMOA
ChEBI ID168396
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Woodroffe R, Yao GL, Meads C, Bayliss S, Ready A, Raftery J, Taylor RS: Clinical and cost-effectiveness of newer immunosuppressive regimens in renal transplantation: a systematic review and modelling study. Health Technol Assess. 2005 May;9(21):1-179, iii-iv. [15899149 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
References
  1. Dostalek M, Court MH, Hazarika S, Akhlaghi F: Diabetes mellitus reduces activity of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in liver and kidney leading to decreased formation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Mar;39(3):448-55. Epub 2010 Dec 1. [21123165 ]
  2. Picard N, Ratanasavanh D, Premaud A, Le Meur Y, Marquet P: Identification of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms involved in mycophenolic acid phase II metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jan;33(1):139-46. Epub 2004 Oct 6. [15470161 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
References
  1. Dostalek M, Court MH, Hazarika S, Akhlaghi F: Diabetes mellitus reduces activity of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in liver and kidney leading to decreased formation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Mar;39(3):448-55. Epub 2010 Dec 1. [21123165 ]
  2. Miles KK, Kessler FK, Smith PC, Ritter JK: Characterization of rat intestinal microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward mycophenolic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep;34(9):1632-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [16790558 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
References
  1. Dostalek M, Court MH, Hazarika S, Akhlaghi F: Diabetes mellitus reduces activity of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in liver and kidney leading to decreased formation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide metabolite. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011 Mar;39(3):448-55. Epub 2010 Dec 1. [21123165 ]
  2. Picard N, Ratanasavanh D, Premaud A, Le Meur Y, Marquet P: Identification of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms involved in mycophenolic acid phase II metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jan;33(1):139-46. Epub 2004 Oct 6. [15470161 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215
References
  1. Miles KK, Kessler FK, Smith PC, Ritter JK: Characterization of rat intestinal microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward mycophenolic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep;34(9):1632-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [16790558 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.
Gene Name:
UGT1A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAW7
Molecular weight:
59818.315
References
  1. Miles KK, Kessler FK, Smith PC, Ritter JK: Characterization of rat intestinal microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward mycophenolic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep;34(9):1632-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21. [16790558 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in the development of malignancy and the growth progression of some tumors.
Gene Name:
IMPDH2
Uniprot ID:
P12268
Molecular weight:
55804.495
References
  1. Vannozzi F, Filipponi F, Di Paolo A, Danesi R, Urbani L, Bocci G, Catalano G, De Simone P, Mosca F, Del Tacca M: An exploratory study on pharmacogenetics of inosine-monophosphate dehydrogenase II in peripheral mononuclear cells from liver-transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2004 Nov;36(9):2787-90. [15621150 ]
  2. Wang J, Zeevi A, Webber S, Girnita DM, Addonizio L, Selby R, Hutchinson IV, Burckart GJ: A novel variant L263F in human inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 is associated with diminished enzyme activity. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Apr;17(4):283-90. [17496727 ]
  3. Penuelas S, Noe V, Morales R, Ciudad CJ: Sensitization of human erythroleukemia K562 cells resistant to methotrexate by inhibiting IMPDH. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Jan;11(1):BR6-12. [15614187 ]
  4. Yam P, Jensen M, Akkina R, Anderson J, Villacres MC, Wu J, Zaia JA, Yee JK: Ex vivo selection and expansion of cells based on expression of a mutated inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 after HIV vector transduction: effects on lymphocytes, monocytes, and CD34+ stem cells. Mol Ther. 2006 Aug;14(2):236-44. Epub 2006 May 2. [16647299 ]
  5. Dzidic A, Prgomet C, Mohr A, Meyer K, Bauer J, Meyer HH, Pfaffl MW: Effects of mycophenolic acid on inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase I and II mRNA expression in white blood cells and various tissues in sheep. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2006 May;53(4):163-9. [16629948 ]
  6. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
  7. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in the development of malignancy and the growth progression of some tumors.
Gene Name:
IMPDH1
Uniprot ID:
P20839
Molecular weight:
63252.24
References
  1. Dzidic A, Prgomet C, Mohr A, Meyer K, Bauer J, Meyer HH, Pfaffl MW: Effects of mycophenolic acid on inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase I and II mRNA expression in white blood cells and various tissues in sheep. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2006 May;53(4):163-9. [16629948 ]
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Catalyzes the deglucuronidation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide, a metabolite of the immunosuppressant drug mycophenolate.
Gene Name:
ABHD10
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUJ1
Molecular weight:
33932.165
Reactions
Mycophenolic acid O-acyl-glucuronide + Water → Mycophenolic acid + D-Glucuronic aciddetails