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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:31:50 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15193
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAmoxicillin
DescriptionAmoxicillin is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration. Amoxicillin is commonly prescribed with clauvanic acid (a beta lactamase inhibitor) as it is susceptible to beta-lacatamase degradation. [PubChem]Amoxicillin binds to penicillin-binding protein 1A (PBP-1A) located inside the bacterial cell well. Penicillins acylate the penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain by opening the lactam ring. This inactivation of the enzyme prevents the formation of a cross-link of two linear peptidoglycan strands, inhibiting the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that amoxicllin interferes with an autolysin inhibitor.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2S,5R,6R)-6-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino}-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acidChEBI
6-(P-Hydroxy-alpha-aminophenylacetamido)penicillanic acidChEBI
alpha-amino-P-HydroxybenzylpenicillinChEBI
AmolinChEBI
AmopenixinChEBI
AmoxicilinaChEBI
Amoxicillin anhydrousChEBI
AmoxicillineChEBI
AmoxicillinumChEBI
AmoxycillinChEBI
AMPCChEBI
AXChEBI
ClamoxylChEBI
MoxalChEBI
P-HydroxyampicillinChEBI
Amoxicillin trihydrateHMDB
Amoxycillin trihydrateHMDB
D-AmoxicillinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC16H19N3O5S
Average Molecular Weight365.404
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight365.104541423
IUPAC Name(2S,5R,6R)-6-[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid
Traditional Nameamoxicillin
CAS Registry Number26787-78-0
SMILES
[H][C@]12SC(C)(C)[C@@H](N1C(=O)[C@H]2NC(=O)[C@H](N)C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H19N3O5S/c1-16(2)11(15(23)24)19-13(22)10(14(19)25-16)18-12(21)9(17)7-3-5-8(20)6-4-7/h3-6,9-11,14,20H,17H2,1-2H3,(H,18,21)(H,23,24)/t9-,10-,11+,14-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=LSQZJLSUYDQPKJ-NJBDSQKTSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as penicillins. These are organic compounds containing the penicillin core structure, which is structurally characterized by a penam ring bearing two methyl groups at position 2, and an amide group at position 6 [starting from the sulfur atom at position 1].
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassLactams
Sub ClassBeta lactams
Direct ParentPenicillins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Penicillin
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • Phenylacetamide
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Thiazolidine
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azetidine
  • Azacycle
  • Dialkylthioether
  • Hemithioaminal
  • Thioether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Penicillins
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point194 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility9.58e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP0Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.96 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.75ALOGPS
logP-2.3ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.23ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area132.96 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity89.5 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.53 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01060
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01060
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01060
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID31006
KEGG Compound IDC06827
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAmoxicillin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15193
Metagene LinkHMDB15193
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound33613
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID2676
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Drawz SM, Bonomo RA: Three decades of beta-lactamase inhibitors. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010 Jan;23(1):160-201. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00037-09. [20065329 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular weight:
78805.3
References
  1. Wenzel U, Gebert I, Weintraut H, Weber WM, Clauss W, Daniel H: Transport characteristics of differently charged cephalosporin antibiotics in oocytes expressing the cloned intestinal peptide transporter PepT1 and in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 May;277(2):831-9. [8627565 ]
  2. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [15567297 ]
  3. Terada T, Saito H, Mukai M, Inui K: Recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by rat peptide transporters, PEPT1 and PEPT2, in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):F706-11. [9374833 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides
Gene Name:
SLC15A2
Uniprot ID:
Q16348
Molecular weight:
81782.8
References
  1. Terada T, Saito H, Mukai M, Inui K: Recognition of beta-lactam antibiotics by rat peptide transporters, PEPT1 and PEPT2, in LLC-PK1 cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Nov;273(5 Pt 2):F706-11. [9374833 ]
  2. Luckner P, Brandsch M: Interaction of 31 beta-lactam antibiotics with the H+/peptide symporter PEPT2: analysis of affinity constants and comparison with PEPT1. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2005 Jan;59(1):17-24. [15567297 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Jariyawat S, Sekine T, Takeda M, Apiwattanakul N, Kanai Y, Sophasan S, Endou H: The interaction and transport of beta-lactam antibiotics with the cloned rat renal organic anion transporter 1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Aug;290(2):672-7. [10411577 ]