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Record Information
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:10 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAmifostine
DescriptionAmifostine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia. [PubChem]The thiol metabolite is responsible for most of the cytoprotective and radioprotective properties of amifostine. It is readily taken up by cells where it binds to and detoxifies reactive metabolites of platinum and alkylating agents as well as scavenges free radicals. Other possible effects include inhibition of apoptosis, alteration of gene expression and modification of enzyme activity.
Amifostine ethiofosHMDB
Aminopropylaminoethyl thiophosphateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H15N2O3PS
Average Molecular Weight214.223
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight214.054099558
IUPAC Name({2-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]ethyl}sulfanyl)phosphonic acid
Traditional Nameamifostine
CAS Registry Number20537-88-6
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organothiophosphorus compounds. These are organic derivatives of thiophosphonic acid, thiophosphoric acid, dithiophosphoric acid, or phosphorotrithioic acid, or derivatives thereof. Thiophosphonic acid, dithiophosphoric acid, thiophosphoric acid, and phosphorotrithioic acid are thiophosphorus compounds with the formula OP(O)(=S), OP(S)(=S)O, OP(O)(=S)O, and OP(=S)(S)S, respectively.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganophosphorus compounds
ClassOrganothiophosphorus compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentOrganothiophosphorus compounds
Alternative Parents
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Secondary amine
  • Organothiophosphorus compound
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusExpected but not Quantified
  • Drug
  • Radiation-Protective Agents
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.87e+01 g/LNot Available
LogP-1.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility18.7 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.06ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.58 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity51.28 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.01 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01143
  • Not Applicable
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01143
  • Not Applicable
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01143
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2056
KEGG Compound IDC06819
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAmifostine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15274
Metagene LinkHMDB15274
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2141
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID2636
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Santini V, Giles FJ: The potential of amifostine: from cytoprotectant to therapeutic agent. Haematologica. 1999 Nov;84(11):1035-42. [10553165 ]
  2. Xu Y, Parmar K, Du F, Price BD, Sun Y: The radioprotective agent WR1065 protects cells from radiation damage by regulating the activity of the Tip60 acetyltransferase. Int J Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;2(4):295-302. Epub 2011 Oct 20. [22187663 ]
  3. Murley JS, Kataoka Y, Miller RC, Li JJ, Woloschak G, Grdina DJ: SOD2-mediated effects induced by WR1065 and low-dose ionizing radiation on micronucleus formation in RKO human colon carcinoma cells. Radiat Res. 2011 Jan;175(1):57-65. doi: 10.1667/RR2349.1. Epub 2010 Nov 8. [21175348 ]
  4. Poirier MC, Olivero OA, Hardy AW, Franchini G, Borojerdi JP, Walker VE, Walker DM, Shearer GM: Antiretroviral activity of the aminothiol WR1065 against Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in vitro and Simian Immunodeficiency virus (SIV) ex vivo. AIDS Res Ther. 2009 Nov 6;6:24. doi: 10.1186/1742-6405-6-24. [19895691 ]
  5. Grdina DJ, Murley JS, Miller RC, Mauceri HJ, Sutton HG, Thirman MJ, Li JJ, Woloschak GE, Weichselbaum RR: A manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2)-mediated adaptive response. Radiat Res. 2013 Feb;179(2):115-24. doi: 10.1667/RR3126.2. Epub 2012 Dec 13. [23237540 ]
  6. Murley JS, Baker KL, Miller RC, Darga TE, Weichselbaum RR, Grdina DJ: SOD2-mediated adaptive responses induced by low-dose ionizing radiation via TNF signaling and amifostine. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Nov 15;51(10):1918-25. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.08.032. Epub 2011 Sep 3. [21945096 ]
  7. Walker DM, Kajon AE, Torres SM, Carter MM, McCash CL, Swenberg JA, Upton PB, Hardy AW, Olivero OA, Shearer GM, Poirier MC, Walker VE: WR1065 mitigates AZT-ddI-induced mutagenesis and inhibits viral replication. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2009 Jul;50(6):460-72. doi: 10.1002/em.20482. [19334055 ]
  8. Mereniuk TR, Maranchuk RA, Schindler A, Penner-Chea J, Freschauf GK, Hegazy S, Lai R, Foley E, Weinfeld M: Genetic screening for synthetic lethal partners of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase: potential for targeting SHP-1-depleted cancers. Cancer Res. 2012 Nov 15;72(22):5934-44. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-0939. Epub 2012 Sep 7. [22962271 ]


General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
This isozyme may play a role in skeletal mineralization.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Shaw LM, Bonner H, Lieberman R: Pharmacokinetic profile of amifostine. Semin Oncol. 1996 Aug;23(4 Suppl 8):18-22. [8783662 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Capizzi RL: The preclinical basis for broad-spectrum selective cytoprotection of normal tissues from cytotoxic therapies by amifostine. Semin Oncol. 1999 Apr;26(2 Suppl 7):3-21. [10348255 ]
  2. Orditura M, De Vita F, Roscigno A, Infusino S, Auriemma A, Iodice P, Ciaramella F, Abbate G, Catalano G: Amifostine: A selective cytoprotective agent of normal tissues from chemo-radiotherapy induced toxicity (Review). Oncol Rep. 1999 Nov-Dec;6(6):1357-62. [10523712 ]
  3. Santini V, Giles FJ: The potential of amifostine: from cytoprotectant to therapeutic agent. Haematologica. 1999 Nov;84(11):1035-42. [10553165 ]
  4. Plasswilm L, Hanjalic A, Hoeper J, Cordes N, Tannapfel A: Microvessel density and endothelial cell proliferation after amifostine (Ethyol) administration in vivo. Anticancer Res. 1999 Sep-Oct;19(5B):4241-5. [10628381 ]
  5. Buschini A, Anceschi E, Carlo-Stella C, Regazzi E, Rizzoli V, Poli P, Rossi C: Amifostine (WR-2721) selective protection against melphalan genotoxicity. Leukemia. 2000 Sep;14(9):1642-51. [10995012 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved primarily in ATP hydrolysis at the plasma membrane. Plays a role in regulating pyrophosphate levels, and functions in bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification. In vitro, has a broad specificity, hydrolyzing other nucleoside 5' triphosphates such as GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP to their corresponding monophosphates with release of pyrophosphate and diadenosine polyphosphates, and also 3',5'-cAMP to AMP. May also be involved in the regulation of the availability of nucleotide sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and the regulation of purinergic signaling. Appears to modulate insulin sensitivity.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]