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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:18 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15298
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameItraconazole
DescriptionItraconazole is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is one of the triazole antifungal agents that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes resulting in impairment of ergosterol synthesis. It has been used against histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, cryptococcal meningitis & aspergillosis. [PubChem]Itraconazole interacts with 14-alpha demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme necessary to convert lanosterol to ergosterol. As ergosterol is an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, inhibition of its synthesis results in increased cellular permeability causing leakage of cellular contents. Itraconazole may also inhibit endogenous respiration, interact with membrane phospholipids, inhibit the transformation of yeasts to mycelial forms, inhibit purine uptake, and impair triglyceride and/or phospholipid biosynthesis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
ItrizoleChEBI
OriconazoleChEBI
SporanoxChEBI
ITCHMDB
ITCZHMDB
ITZHMDB
Chemical FormulaC35H38Cl2N8O4
Average Molecular Weight705.633
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight704.239307158
IUPAC Name1-(butan-2-yl)-4-{4-[4-(4-{[(2R,4S)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy}phenyl)piperazin-1-yl]phenyl}-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-one
Traditional Nameitraconazole
CAS Registry Number84625-61-6
SMILES
CCC(C)N1N=CN(C1=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)N1CCN(CC1)C1=CC=C(OC[C@H]2CO[C@@](CN3C=NC=N3)(O2)C2=C(Cl)C=C(Cl)C=C2)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C35H38Cl2N8O4/c1-3-25(2)45-34(46)44(24-40-45)29-7-5-27(6-8-29)41-14-16-42(17-15-41)28-9-11-30(12-10-28)47-19-31-20-48-35(49-31,21-43-23-38-22-39-43)32-13-4-26(36)18-33(32)37/h4-13,18,22-25,31H,3,14-17,19-21H2,1-2H3/t25?,31-,35-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=VHVPQPYKVGDNFY-ZPGVKDDISA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpiperazines. These are compounds containing a phenylpiperazine skeleton, which consists of a piperazine bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazinanes
Sub ClassPiperazines
Direct ParentPhenylpiperazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-arylpiperazine
  • Phenylpiperazine
  • Phenyl-1,3,4-triazole
  • Phenyl-1,2,4-triazole
  • Phenyltriazole
  • Substituted aniline
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Phenol ether
  • 1,3-dichlorobenzene
  • Glycerol ether
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aniline
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • 1,2,4-triazole
  • Triazole
  • Azole
  • Meta-dioxolane
  • Tertiary amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antifungal Agents
  • Antifungals
  • Antiprotozoal Agents
  • Antiprotozoals
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point166.2 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility9.64e-03 g/LNot Available
LogP6.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0096 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.48ALOGPS
logP7.31ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.92ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.79 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity200.4 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability74.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01167
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01167
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01167
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID49927
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkItraconazole
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15298
Metagene LinkHMDB15298
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound55283
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID6076
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes C14-demethylation of lanosterol; it transforms lanosterol into 4,4'-dimethyl cholesta-8,14,24-triene-3-beta-ol.
Gene Name:
CYP51A1
Uniprot ID:
Q16850
Molecular weight:
57277.81
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Cotrim PC, Garrity LK, Beverley SM: Isolation of genes mediating resistance to inhibitors of nucleoside and ergosterol metabolism in Leishmania by overexpression/selection. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 31;274(53):37723-30. [10608831 ]
  3. Carrillo-Munoz AJ, Giusiano G, Ezkurra PA, Quindos G: Antifungal agents: mode of action in yeast cells. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2006 Jun;19(2):130-9. [16964330 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Niwa T, Shiraga T, Takagi A: Effect of antifungal drugs on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 activities in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1805-8. [16141567 ]
  2. Sakaeda T, Iwaki K, Kakumoto M, Nishikawa M, Niwa T, Jin JS, Nakamura T, Nishiguchi K, Okamura N, Okumura K: Effect of micafungin on cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1 activities, and its comparison with azole antifungal drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;57(6):759-64. [15969931 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. [17101742 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [11716514 ]
  2. Wang EJ, Lew K, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Interaction of common azole antifungals with P glycoprotein. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Jan;46(1):160-5. [11751127 ]
  3. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [12699389 ]
  4. Takara K, Tanigawara Y, Komada F, Nishiguchi K, Sakaeda T, Okumura K: Cellular pharmacokinetic aspects of reversal effect of itraconazole on P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance of anticancer drugs. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Dec;22(12):1355-9. [10746169 ]
  5. Masuda S, Inui K: [Molecular mechanisms on drug transporters in the drug absorption and disposition]. Nihon Rinsho. 2002 Jan;60(1):65-73. [11808341 ]
  6. Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Laitila J, Luurila H, Neuvonen PJ: Itraconazole increases but grapefruit juice greatly decreases plasma concentrations of celiprolol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Mar;73(3):192-8. [12621384 ]
  7. Sakaeda T, Iwaki K, Kakumoto M, Nishikawa M, Niwa T, Jin JS, Nakamura T, Nishiguchi K, Okamura N, Okumura K: Effect of micafungin on cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1 activities, and its comparison with azole antifungal drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;57(6):759-64. [15969931 ]
  8. Saito M, Hirata-Koizumi M, Miyake S, Hasegawa R: Comparison of information on the pharmacokinetic interactions of Ca antagonists in the package inserts from three countries (Japan, USA and UK). Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;61(7):531-6. Epub 2005 Jul 23. [16041596 ]
  9. Shon JH, Yoon YR, Hong WS, Nguyen PM, Lee SS, Choi YG, Cha IJ, Shin JG: Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fexofenadine in relation to the MDR1 genetic polymorphism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Aug;78(2):191-201. [16084853 ]