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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:20 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15310
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePodofilox
DescriptionA lignan (lignans) found in podophyllin resin from the roots of podophyllum plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-PodophyllotoxinChEBI
9-HYDROXY-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5,8,8a,9-tetrahydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-D][1,3]dioxol-6(5ah)-oneChEBI
CondyloxChEBI
PodofiloxChEBI
Podophyllinic acid lactoneChEBI
Podophyllotoxin 7ChEBI
PPTChEBI
Podophyllinate lactoneGenerator
Chemical FormulaC22H22O8
Average Molecular Weight414.4053
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight414.13146768
IUPAC Name(10R,11R,15R,16R)-16-hydroxy-10-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4,6,13-trioxatetracyclo[7.7.0.0³,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]hexadeca-1,3(7),8-trien-12-one
Traditional Namecondylox
CAS Registry Number477-47-4
SMILES
[H][C@]12COC(=O)[C@]1([H])[C@H](C1=CC(OC)=C(OC)C(OC)=C1)C1=CC3=C(OCO3)C=C1[C@@H]2O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C22H22O8/c1-25-16-4-10(5-17(26-2)21(16)27-3)18-11-6-14-15(30-9-29-14)7-12(11)20(23)13-8-28-22(24)19(13)18/h4-7,13,18-20,23H,8-9H2,1-3H3/t13-,18+,19-,20-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=YJGVMLPVUAXIQN-XVVDYKMHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as podophyllotoxins. These are tetralin lignans in which the benzene moiety of the tetralin skeleton is fused to a 1,3-dioxolane and the cyclohexane is fused to a butyrolactone (pyrrolidin-2-one).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLignans, neolignans and related compounds
ClassLignan lactones
Sub ClassPodophyllotoxins
Direct ParentPodophyllotoxins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Podophyllotoxin
  • 1-aryltetralin lignan
  • Tetralin
  • Benzodioxole
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Gamma butyrolactone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Oxolane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antimitotic agent
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Keratolytic Agents
  • Tubulin Modulators
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point228 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.14e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP1.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.11 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.37ALOGPS
logP1.62ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.02ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.68 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity103.91 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability41.71 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01179
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01179
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01179
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID10162
KEGG Compound IDC10874
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPodofilox
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15310
Metagene LinkHMDB15310
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound10607
PDB IDPOD
ChEBI ID50305
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBB
Uniprot ID:
P07437
Molecular weight:
49670.5
References
  1. Wolff J, Knipling L, Cahnmann HJ, Palumbo G: Direct photoaffinity labeling of tubulin with colchicine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Apr 1;88(7):2820-4. [2011590 ]
General function:
Involved in structural molecule activity
Specific function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain
Gene Name:
TUBA4A
Uniprot ID:
P68366
Molecular weight:
49924.0
References
  1. Labruere R, Gautier B, Testud M, Seguin J, Lenoir C, Desbene-Finck S, Helissey P, Garbay C, Chabot GG, Vidal M, Giorgi-Renault S: Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of the first podophyllotoxin analogues as potential vascular-disrupting agents. ChemMedChem. 2010 Dec 3;5(12):2016-25. [20979080 ]
  2. Li CM, Lu Y, Ahn S, Narayanan R, Miller DD, Dalton JT: Competitive mass spectrometry binding assay for characterization of three binding sites of tubulin. J Mass Spectrom. 2010 Oct;45(10):1160-6. [20814887 ]
  3. Kim ND, Park ES, Kim YH, Moon SK, Lee SS, Ahn SK, Yu DY, No KT, Kim KH: Structure-based virtual screening of novel tubulin inhibitors and their characterization as anti-mitotic agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Oct 1;18(19):7092-100. Epub 2010 Aug 6. [20810285 ]
  4. Screpanti E, Santaguida S, Nguyen T, Silvestri R, Gussio R, Musacchio A, Hamel E, De Wulf P: A screen for kinetochore-microtubule interaction inhibitors identifies novel antitubulin compounds. PLoS One. 2010 Jul 15;5(7):e11603. [20657644 ]
  5. Alam MA, Naik PK: Applying linear interaction energy method for binding affinity calculations of podophyllotoxin analogues with tubulin using continuum solvent model and prediction of cytotoxic activity. J Mol Graph Model. 2009 Jun-Jul;27(8):930-43. Epub 2009 Feb 20. [19286405 ]
  6. Clark PI: Clinical pharmacology and schedule dependency of the podophyllotoxin derivatives. Semin Oncol. 1992 Apr;19(2 Suppl 6):20-7. [1411635 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular weight:
174383.9
References
  1. Iida A, Kano M, Kubota Y, Koga K, Tomioka K: Podophyllotoxin aza-analogue, a novel DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000 Apr;48(4):486-9. [10783066 ]
  2. Zhang YL, Shen YC, Wang ZQ, Chen HX, Guo X, Cheng YC, Lee KH: Antitumor agents, 130, Novel 4 beta-arylamino derivatives of 3',4'-didemethoxy-3',4'-dioxo-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin as potent inhibitors of human DNA topoisomerase II. J Nat Prod. 1992 Aug;55(8):1100-11. [1331331 ]
  3. Terada T, Fujimoto K, Nomura M, Yamashita J, Kobunai T, Takeda S, Wierzba K, Yamada Y, Yamaguchi H: Antitumor agents. I. DNA topoisomerase II inhibitory activity and the structural relationship of podophyllotoxin derivatives as antitumor agents. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992 Oct;40(10):2720-7. [1334447 ]
  4. Kamal A, Gayatri NL, Reddy DR, Mohan Reddy PS, Arifuddin M, Dastidar SG, Kondapi AK, Rajkumar M: Synthesis and biological evaluation of new 4beta-anilino- and 4beta-imido-substituted podophyllotoxin congeners. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Nov 15;13(22):6218-25. Epub 2005 Aug 2. [16061385 ]
  5. Ruckdeschel JC: Etoposide in the management of non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer. 1991 Jan 1;67(1 Suppl):250-3. [1845848 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]