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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:24 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15320
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDesflurane
DescriptionDesflurane is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anaesthesia. Volatile agents such as desflurane may activate GABA channels and hyperpolarize cell membranes. In addition, they may inhibit certain calcium channels and therefore prevent release of neurotransmitters and inhibit glutamate channels. Volatile anesthetics easily partition into cellular membranes and could expand the volume of the cell membrane and subsequently distort channels necessary for sodium ion flux and the development of action potentials necessary for synaptic transmission. Desflurane preconditions human myocardium against ischemia through activation of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, adenosine A1 receptor, and alpha and beta adrenoceptors.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+-)-2-Difluoromethyl 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl etherChEBI
1,1,1,2-tetrafluoro-2-(Difluoromethoxy)ethaneChEBI
Difluoromethyl 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl etherChEBI
SupraneChEBI
Chemical FormulaC3H2F6O
Average Molecular Weight168.0378
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight168.000983916
IUPAC Name2-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane
Traditional Namedesflurane
CAS Registry Number57041-67-5
SMILES
FC(F)OC(F)C(F)(F)F
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H2F6O/c4-1(3(7,8)9)10-2(5)6/h1-2H
InChI KeyInChIKey=DPYMFVXJLLWWEU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as halomethanes. These are organic compounds in which at least one of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassAlkyl halides
Sub ClassHalomethanes
Direct ParentHalomethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Halomethane
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation
  • Neuroprotective Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling Point23.5 °CNot Available
Water Solubility3.54e+00 g/LNot Available
LogP1.9Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.54 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.19ALOGPS
logP2.4ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.87ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity18.12 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability7.89 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01189
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01189
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01189
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID38403
KEGG Compound IDC07519
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDesflurane
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15320
Metagene LinkHMDB15320
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound42113
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4445
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidation reduction
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular weight:
35660.055
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in hydrogen ion transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism
Specific function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked together by a central stalk and a peripheral stalk. During catalysis, ATP turnover in the catalytic domain of F(1) is coupled via a rotary mechanism of the central stalk subunits to proton translocation. Part of the complex F(1) domain and of the central stalk which is part of the complex rotary element. Rotation of the central stalk against the surrounding alpha(3)beta(3) subunits leads to hydrolysis of ATP in three separate catalytic sites on the beta subunits
Gene Name:
ATP5D
Uniprot ID:
P30049
Molecular weight:
17489.8
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [8214757 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular weight:
96959.125
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in ionotropic glutamate receptor activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L- glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inactive state, characterized by the presence of bound agonist
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular weight:
101505.2
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Dildy-Mayfield JE, Eger EI 2nd, Harris RA: Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1058-65. [8786535 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular weight:
51801.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Seo K, Seino H, Yoshikawa H, Petrenko AB, Baba H, Fujiwara N, Someya G, Kawano Y, Maeda T, Matsuda M, Kanematsu T, Hirata M: Genetic reduction of GABA(A) receptor gamma2 subunit expression potentiates the immobilizing action of isoflurane. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Mar 12;472(1):1-4. Epub 2010 Jan 25. [20097266 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing)
Gene Name:
GLRA1
Uniprot ID:
P23415
Molecular weight:
52623.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [16973644 ]
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a potassium-selective channel through which potassium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient
Gene Name:
KCNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q09470
Molecular weight:
56465.0
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Matchett GA, Allard MW, Martin RD, Zhang JH: Neuroprotective effect of volatile anesthetic agents: molecular mechanisms. Neurol Res. 2009 Mar;31(2):128-34. [19298752 ]