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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:26 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15327
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameEstramustine
DescriptionEstramustine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties. [PubChem]Estramustine is a derivative of estradiol with a nitrogen mustard moiety. This gives it alkylating properties. In vivo, the nitrogen mustard component is active and can alklyate DNA and other cellular components (such as tubulin components) of rapidly dividing cells. This causes DNA strandbreaks or misscoding events. This leads to apoptosis and cell death. Also, due to the drugs estrogen component, it can bind more selectively to active estrogen receptors.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
17beta-Estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate)ChEBI
Estradiol 3-(N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate)ChEBI
EstramustinaChEBI
EstramustinumChEBI
17b-Estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate)Generator
17b-Estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamic acid)Generator
17beta-Estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamic acid)Generator
17β-estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate)Generator
17β-estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamic acid)Generator
Estradiol 3-(N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamic acid)Generator
Estramustin sodium phosphateHMDB
Estramustine sodium phosphateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC23H31Cl2NO3
Average Molecular Weight440.403
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight439.168099277
IUPAC Name(1S,10R,11S,14S,15S)-14-hydroxy-15-methyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-2,4,6-trien-5-yl N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate
Traditional Nameestramustine
CAS Registry Number2998-57-4
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@H](O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@]1([H])C3=CC=C(OC(=O)N(CCCl)CCCl)C=C3CC[C@@]21[H]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C23H31Cl2NO3/c1-23-9-8-18-17-5-3-16(29-22(28)26(12-10-24)13-11-25)14-15(17)2-4-19(18)20(23)6-7-21(23)27/h3,5,14,18-21,27H,2,4,6-13H2,1H3/t18-,19-,20+,21+,23+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=FRPJXPJMRWBBIH-RBRWEJTLSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as estrane steroids. These are steroids with a structure based on the estrane skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassEstrane steroids
Direct ParentEstrane steroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • Estrane-skeleton
  • Phenanthrene
  • Tetralin
  • Nitrogen mustard
  • Benzenoid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Radiation-Protective Agents
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point104.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.85e-04 g/LNot Available
LogP5.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000385 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.97ALOGPS
logP5.1ChemAxon
logS-6.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.88ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.77 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity116.21 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability48.06 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01196
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01196
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01196
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID227635
KEGG Compound IDC11228
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkEstramustine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15327
Metagene LinkHMDB15327
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound259331
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4868
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA- binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular weight:
59215.8
References
  1. Ho SM: Estrogens and anti-estrogens: key mediators of prostate carcinogenesis and new therapeutic candidates. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Feb 15;91(3):491-503. [14755680 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization
Specific function:
The exact function of MAP2 is unknown but MAPs may stabilize the microtubules against depolymerization. They also seem to have a stiffening effect on microtubules
Gene Name:
MAP2
Uniprot ID:
P11137
Molecular weight:
199524.5
References
  1. Moraga D, Rivas-Berrios A, Farias G, Wallin M, Maccioni RB: Estramustine-phosphate binds to a tubulin binding domain on microtubule-associated proteins MAP-2 and tau. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 May 22;1121(1-2):97-103. [1599956 ]
  2. Stearns ME, Wang M, Sousa O: Evidence that estramustine binds MAP-1A to inhibit type IV collagenase secretion. J Cell Sci. 1991 Jan;98 ( Pt 1):55-63. [1647395 ]
  3. Friden B, Rutberg M, Deinum J, Wallin M: The effect of estramustine derivatives on microtubule assembly in vitro depends on the charge of the substituent. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 Aug 8;42(5):997-1006. [1908244 ]
  4. Burns RG: Stoichiometry of estramustine phosphate binding to MAP2 measured by the disassembly of chick brain MAP2:tubulin microtubules. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1990;17(3):167-73. [2125244 ]
  5. Falconer MM, Vielkind U, Brown DL: Association of acetylated microtubules, vimentin intermediate filaments, and MAP 2 during early neural differentiation in EC cell culture. Biochem Cell Biol. 1989 Sep;67(9):537-44. [2679799 ]
  6. Tew KD: The mechanism of action of estramustine. Semin Oncol. 1983 Sep;10(3 Suppl 3):21-6. [6364362 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular weight:
66215.4
References
  1. Ferno M, Borg A, Ingvar C, Jonsson PE: Estrogen receptor and binding site for estramustine in metastatic malignant melanoma. Anticancer Res. 1987 Jul-Aug;7(4B):741-3. [3314674 ]
  2. Yoshizumi N: [The effects of site-directed chemotherapy due to E2 as a drug carrier to the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in vitro]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1985 Apr;37(4):637-45. [3989343 ]
  3. von Schoultz E, Carlstrom K, Henriksson R, Lagerlof B, Hansson J: Estramustine binding protein in primary tumours and metastases of malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res. 1994 Dec;4(6):401-5. [7703721 ]
  4. Tew KD: The mechanism of action of estramustine. Semin Oncol. 1983 Sep;10(3 Suppl 3):21-6. [6364362 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Yang CP, Shen HJ, Horwitz SB: Modulation of the function of P-glycoprotein by estramustine. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 May 4;86(9):723-5. [7908991 ]
  2. Tiersten AD, Nelsen C, Talbot S, Vahdat L, Fine R, Troxel A, Brafman L, Shriberg L, Antman K, Petrylak DP: A phase II trial of docetaxel and estramustine in patients with refractory metastatic breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2003 Feb 1;97(3):537-44. [12548594 ]
  3. Smith CD, Zilfou JT, Zhang X, Hudes GR, Tew KD: Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity by estramustine is limited by binding to plasma proteins. Cancer. 1995 May 15;75(10):2597-604. [7736407 ]
  4. Speicher LA, Barone LR, Chapman AE, Hudes GR, Laing N, Smith CD, Tew KD: P-glycoprotein binding and modulation of the multidrug-resistant phenotype by estramustine. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 May 4;86(9):688-94. [7908988 ]