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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:28 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15331
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBromocriptine
DescriptionBromocriptine mesylate is a semisynthetic ergot alkaloid derivative with potent dopaminergic activity. It is indicated for the management of signs and symptoms of Parkinsonian Syndrome. Bromocriptine also inhibits prolactin secretion and may be used to treat dysfunctions associated with hyperprolactinemia. It also causes sustained suppression of somatotropin (growth hormone) secretion in some patients with acromegaly. Bromocriptine has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(5'alpha)-2-bromo-12'-Hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(2-methylpropyl)-3',6',18-trioxoergotamanChEBI
(5'alpha)-2-bromo-12'-Hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(2-methylpropyl)ergotaman-3',6',18-trioneChEBI
(5'alpha)-2-bromo-12'-Hydroxy-5'-isobutyl-2'-isopropyl-3',6',18-trioxoergotamanChEBI
2-bromo-alpha-ErgocryptineChEBI
2-bromo-alpha-ErgokryptinChEBI
2-bromo-alpha-ErgokryptineChEBI
BromocriptinumChEBI
BromocryptineChEBI
BromoergocriptineChEBI
(5'a)-2-bromo-12'-Hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(2-methylpropyl)-3',6',18-trioxoergotamanGenerator
(5'α)-2-bromo-12'-hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(2-methylpropyl)-3',6',18-trioxoergotamanGenerator
(5'a)-2-bromo-12'-Hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(2-methylpropyl)ergotaman-3',6',18-trioneGenerator
(5'α)-2-bromo-12'-hydroxy-2'-(1-methylethyl)-5'-(2-methylpropyl)ergotaman-3',6',18-trioneGenerator
(5'a)-2-bromo-12'-Hydroxy-5'-isobutyl-2'-isopropyl-3',6',18-trioxoergotamanGenerator
(5'α)-2-bromo-12'-hydroxy-5'-isobutyl-2'-isopropyl-3',6',18-trioxoergotamanGenerator
2-bromo-a-ErgocryptineGenerator
2-bromo-α-ergocryptineGenerator
2-bromo-a-ErgokryptinGenerator
2-bromo-α-ergokryptinGenerator
2-bromo-a-ErgokryptineGenerator
2-bromo-α-ergokryptineGenerator
BromergocryptineHMDB
BromocriptinHMDB
Bromocriptine methanesulfonateHMDB
BromoergocryptineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC32H40BrN5O5
Average Molecular Weight654.595
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight653.221282062
IUPAC Name(4R,7R)-10-bromo-N-[(1S,2S,4R,7S)-2-hydroxy-7-(2-methylpropyl)-5,8-dioxo-4-(propan-2-yl)-3-oxa-6,9-diazatricyclo[7.3.0.0²,⁶]dodecan-4-yl]-6-methyl-6,11-diazatetracyclo[7.6.1.0²,⁷.0¹²,¹⁶]hexadeca-1(16),2,9,12,14-pentaene-4-carboxamide
Traditional Namebromocriptine
CAS Registry Number25614-03-3
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CCCN1C(=O)[C@H](CC(C)C)N1C(=O)[C@](NC(=O)[C@H]3CN(C)[C@]4([H])CC5=C(Br)NC6=CC=CC(=C56)C4=C3)(O[C@@]21O)C(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C32H40BrN5O5/c1-16(2)12-24-29(40)37-11-7-10-25(37)32(42)38(24)30(41)31(43-32,17(3)4)35-28(39)18-13-20-19-8-6-9-22-26(19)21(27(33)34-22)14-23(20)36(5)15-18/h6,8-9,13,16-18,23-25,34,42H,7,10-12,14-15H2,1-5H3,(H,35,39)/t18-,23-,24+,25+,31-,32+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=OZVBMTJYIDMWIL-AYFBDAFISA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as ergopeptines. These are ergoline derivatives that contain a tripeptide structure attached to the basic ergoline ring in the same location as the amide group of the lysergic acid derivatives.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassErgoline and derivatives
Sub ClassLysergic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentErgopeptines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hybrid peptide
  • Ergopeptine
  • Lysergic acid amide
  • Indoloquinoline
  • Benzoquinoline
  • Quinoline-3-carboxamide
  • Pyrroloquinoline
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Quinoline
  • Isoindole or derivatives
  • Indole or derivatives
  • Indole
  • Aralkylamine
  • N-alkylpiperazine
  • Tetrahydropyridine
  • Benzenoid
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Piperazine
  • Oxazolidinone
  • 1,4-diazinane
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl bromide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Pyrrole
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Orthocarboxylic acid derivative
  • Lactam
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Alkanolamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organobromide
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antidyskinetics
  • Antiparkinson Agents
  • Dopamine Agonists
  • Hormone Antagonists
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility8.58e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP3.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.086 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.2ALOGPS
logP3.89ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.68ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.71ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area118.21 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity165.51 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability66.44 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01200
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01200
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01200
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID28858
KEGG Compound IDC06856
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkBromocriptine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15331
Metagene LinkHMDB15331
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound31101
PDB ID08Y
ChEBI ID3181
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  2. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
  3. Malgaroli A, Vallar L, Elahi FR, Pozzan T, Spada A, Meldolesi J: Dopamine inhibits cytosolic Ca2+ increases in rat lactotroph cells. Evidence of a dual mechanism of action. J Biol Chem. 1987 Oct 15;262(29):13920-7. [2443499 ]
  4. Vallar L, Meldolesi J: Mechanisms of signal transduction at the dopamine D2 receptor. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 1989 Feb;10(2):74-7. [2655242 ]
  5. Vallar L, Vicentini LM, Meldolesi J: Inhibition of inositol phosphate production is a late, Ca2+-dependent effect of D2 dopaminergic receptor activation in rat lactotroph cells. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jul 25;263(21):10127-34. [2839476 ]
  6. Banihashemi B, Albert PR: Dopamine-D2S receptor inhibition of calcium influx, adenylyl cyclase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase in pituitary cells: distinct Galpha and Gbetagamma requirements. Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;16(10):2393-404. [12351703 ]
  7. Nishina Y, Takano K, Yasufuku-Takano J, Teramoto A, Fujita T: Mechanism of D(2) agonist-induced inhibition of GH secretion from human GH-secreting adenoma cells. Endocr J. 2005 Dec;52(6):775-9. [16410672 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity
Gene Name:
HTR1A
Uniprot ID:
P08908
Molecular weight:
46106.3
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  2. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular weight:
48956.3
References
  1. de Leeuw van Weenen JE, Parlevliet ET, Maechler P, Havekes LM, Romijn JA, Ouwens DM, Pijl H, Guigas B: The dopamine receptor D2 agonist bromocriptine inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by direct activation of the alpha2-adrenergic receptors in beta cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 15;79(12):1827-36. Epub 2010 Feb 4. [20138024 ]
  2. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  3. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular weight:
50618.9
References
  1. Cavallotti C, Nuti F, Bruzzone P, Mancone M: Age-related changes in dopamine D2 receptors in rat heart and coronary vessels. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2002 May-Jun;29(5-6):412-8. [12010185 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  3. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  4. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
  5. Lahlou S: Cardiovascular responses to intrathecal dopamine receptor agonists in conscious DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1999;13(6):624-34. [10626749 ]
  6. Lahlou S, Araujo Lima PF, Interaminense LF, Duarte GP: Blunted central bromocriptine-induced tachycardia in conscious, malnourished rats. Pharmacol Toxicol. 2003 Apr;92(4):189-94. [12753422 ]
  7. Lahlou S, Lima GC, Leao-Filho CS, Duarte GP: Effects of long-term pretreatment with isoproterenol on bromocriptine-induced tachycardia in conscious rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000 Mar;78(3):260-5. [10721819 ]
  8. Stefaneanu L, Kovacs K, Horvath E, Buchfelder M, Fahlbusch R, Lancranjan L: Dopamine D2 receptor gene expression in human adenohypophysial adenomas. Endocrine. 2001 Apr;14(3):329-36. [11444429 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine > norepinephrine > epinephrine = oxymetazoline > dopamine > p-tyramine = phenylephrine > serotonin > p-synephrine / p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > chlorpromazine > phentolamine > mianserine > spiperone > prazosin > alprenolol > propanolol > pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID:
P18089
Molecular weight:
49953.1
References
  1. de Leeuw van Weenen JE, Parlevliet ET, Maechler P, Havekes LM, Romijn JA, Ouwens DM, Pijl H, Guigas B: The dopamine receptor D2 agonist bromocriptine inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by direct activation of the alpha2-adrenergic receptors in beta cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 15;79(12):1827-36. Epub 2010 Feb 4. [20138024 ]
  2. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  3. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA2C
Uniprot ID:
P18825
Molecular weight:
49521.6
References
  1. de Leeuw van Weenen JE, Parlevliet ET, Maechler P, Havekes LM, Romijn JA, Ouwens DM, Pijl H, Guigas B: The dopamine receptor D2 agonist bromocriptine inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by direct activation of the alpha2-adrenergic receptors in beta cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 15;79(12):1827-36. Epub 2010 Feb 4. [20138024 ]
  2. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  3. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular weight:
49292.8
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular weight:
48359.9
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD5
Uniprot ID:
P21918
Molecular weight:
52950.5
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its effect through the influx of extracellular calcium
Gene Name:
ADRA1D
Uniprot ID:
P25100
Molecular weight:
60462.2
References
  1. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity
Gene Name:
HTR1D
Uniprot ID:
P28221
Molecular weight:
41906.4
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  2. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity
Gene Name:
HTR1B
Uniprot ID:
P28222
Molecular weight:
43567.5
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  2. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6
References
  1. Cussac D, Boutet-Robinet E, Ailhaud MC, Newman-Tancredi A, Martel JC, Danty N, Rauly-Lestienne I: Agonist-directed trafficking of signalling at serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C-VSV receptors mediated Gq/11 activation and calcium mobilisation in CHO cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct 10;594(1-3):32-8. Epub 2008 Jul 30. [18703043 ]
  2. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  3. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular weight:
51820.7
References
  1. Cussac D, Boutet-Robinet E, Ailhaud MC, Newman-Tancredi A, Martel JC, Danty N, Rauly-Lestienne I: Agonist-directed trafficking of signalling at serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C-VSV receptors mediated Gq/11 activation and calcium mobilisation in CHO cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct 10;594(1-3):32-8. Epub 2008 Jul 30. [18703043 ]
  2. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  3. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
HTR7
Uniprot ID:
P34969
Molecular weight:
53554.4
References
  1. Knight JA, Smith C, Toohey N, Klein MT, Teitler M: Pharmacological analysis of the novel, rapid, and potent inactivation of the human 5-Hydroxytryptamine7 receptor by risperidone, 9-OH-Risperidone, and other inactivating antagonists. Mol Pharmacol. 2009 Feb;75(2):374-80. Epub 2008 Nov 7. [18996971 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular weight:
51486.0
References
  1. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular weight:
56835.4
References
  1. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular weight:
44224.3
References
  1. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  2. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular weight:
54297.4
References
  1. Cussac D, Boutet-Robinet E, Ailhaud MC, Newman-Tancredi A, Martel JC, Danty N, Rauly-Lestienne I: Agonist-directed trafficking of signalling at serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C-VSV receptors mediated Gq/11 activation and calcium mobilisation in CHO cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Oct 10;594(1-3):32-8. Epub 2008 Jul 30. [18703043 ]
  2. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  3. Lam YW: Clinical pharmacology of dopamine agonists. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Jan;20(1 Pt 2):17S-25S. [10641988 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Fernando H, Halpert JR, Davydov DR: Resolution of multiple substrate binding sites in cytochrome P450 3A4: the stoichiometry of the enzyme-substrate complexes probed by FRET and Job's titration. Biochemistry. 2006 Apr 4;45(13):4199-209. [16566594 ]
  2. Kvernmo T, Houben J, Sylte I: Receptor-binding and pharmacokinetic properties of dopaminergic agonists. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008;8(12):1049-67. [18691132 ]
  3. Nath A, Grinkova YV, Sligar SG, Atkins WM: Ligand binding to cytochrome P450 3A4 in phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs: the effect of model membranes. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 28;282(39):28309-20. Epub 2007 Jun 15. [17573349 ]
  4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Ekins S, Kim RB, Leake BF, Dantzig AH, Schuetz EG, Lan LB, Yasuda K, Shepard RL, Winter MA, Schuetz JD, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. Mol Pharmacol. 2002 May;61(5):964-73. [11961113 ]
  2. Yasuda K, Lan LB, Sanglard D, Furuya K, Schuetz JD, Schuetz EG: Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors with P-glycoprotein. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Oct;303(1):323-32. [12235267 ]
  3. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [12438524 ]
  4. Renaud JP, Davydov DR, Heirwegh KP, Mansuy D, Hui Bon Hoa GH: Thermodynamic studies of substrate binding and spin transitions in human cytochrome P-450 3A4 expressed in yeast microsomes. Biochem J. 1996 Nov 1;319 ( Pt 3):675-81. [8920966 ]