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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:34 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15354
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAminophylline
DescriptionAminophylline is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a drug combination that contains theophylline and ethylenediamine in 2:1 ratio. [Wikipedia]Theophylline is structurally related to theobromine and caffeine. The precise mechanism of action of theophylline is not known, however, it is thought to be a phosphodiesterase inhibitor which may give a bronchodilatory effect. It also binds adenosine receptors.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
SomophyllinKegg
Theophylline ethylenediamineKegg
AminophyllinHMDB
Aminophylline anhydrousHMDB
Aminophylline dihydrateHMDB
Aminophylline dye freeHMDB
Chemical FormulaC16H24N10O4
Average Molecular Weight420.4264
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight420.198199306
IUPAC Namebis(1,3-dimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione); ethane-1,2-diamine
Traditional Nameethylenediamine; bis(theophylline)
CAS Registry Number317-34-0
SMILES
NCCN.CN1C2=C(NC=N2)C(=O)N(C)C1=O.CN1C2=C(NC=N2)C(=O)N(C)C1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/2C7H8N4O2.C2H8N2/c2*1-10-5-4(8-3-9-5)6(12)11(2)7(10)13;3-1-2-4/h2*3H,1-2H3,(H,8,9);1-4H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=FQPFAHBPWDRTLU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
  • Respiratory Smooth Muscle Relaxants
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-3.03Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area69.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity44.93 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.86 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01223
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01223
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01223
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID9062
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAminophylline
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15354
Metagene LinkHMDB15354
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound9433
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID894445
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase with a dual-specificity for the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, which are key regulators of many important physiological processes (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PDE3A
Uniprot ID:
Q14432
Molecular weight:
124978.06
References
  1. Hirota K, Yoshioka H, Kabara S, Koizumi Y, Abe H, Sato T, Matsuki A: Spasmolytic effects of colforsin daropate on serotonin-induced pulmonary hypertension and bronchoconstriction in dogs. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2002 Mar;46(3):297-302. [11939921 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
ADORA1
Uniprot ID:
P30542
Molecular weight:
36511.3
References
  1. Yamamoto S, Nakanishi O, Matsui T, Shinohara N, Kinoshita H, Lambert C, Ishikawa T: Intrathecal adenosine A1 receptor agonist attenuates hyperalgesia without inhibiting spinal glutamate release in the rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2003 Apr;23(2):175-85. [12735630 ]
  2. Lerman BB: Response of nonreentrant catecholamine-mediated ventricular tachycardia to endogenous adenosine and acetylcholine. Evidence for myocardial receptor-mediated effects. Circulation. 1993 Feb;87(2):382-90. [8425287 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibits adenylyl cyclase. Possible role in reproduction
Gene Name:
ADORA3
Uniprot ID:
P33765
Molecular weight:
36184.2
References
  1. Stella L, de Novellis V, Marabese I, Berrino L, Maione S, Filippelli A, Rossi F: The role of A3 adenosine receptors in central regulation of arterial blood pressure. Br J Pharmacol. 1998 Oct;125(3):437-40. [9806324 ]