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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:36 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15363
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMetoclopramide
DescriptionMetoclopramide is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic. [PubChem]Metoclopramide inhibits gastric smooth muscle relaxation produced by dopamine, therefore increasing cholinergic response of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle. It accelerates intestinal transit and gastric emptying by preventing relaxation of gastric body and increasing the phasic activity of antrum. Simultaneously, this action is accompanied by relaxation of the upper small intestine, resulting in an improved coordination between the body and antrum of the stomach and the upper small intestine. Metoclopramide also decreases reflux into the esophagus by increasing the resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter and improves acid clearance from the esophagus by increasing amplitude of esophageal peristaltic contractions. Metoclopramide's dopamine antagonist action raises the threshold of activity in the chemoreceptor trigger zone and decreases the input from afferent visceral nerves. Studies have also shown that high doses of metoclopramide can antagonize 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the peripheral nervous system in animals.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Methoxy-4-amino-5-chloro-N,N-(dimethylaminoethyl)benzamideChEBI
2-Methoxy-5-chloroprocainamideChEBI
4-amino-5-chloro-2-Methoxy-N-(beta-diethylaminoethyl)benzamideChEBI
4-amino-5-chloro-N-(2-(diethylamino)Ethyl)-2-methoxybenzamideChEBI
4-amino-5-chloro-N-(2-(diethylamino)Ethyl)-O-anisamideChEBI
ElietenChEBI
MetoclopramidaChEBI
MetoclopramidumChEBI
ReliveranChEBI
4-amino-5-chloro-2-Methoxy-N-(b-diethylaminoethyl)benzamideGenerator
4-amino-5-chloro-2-Methoxy-N-(β-diethylaminoethyl)benzamideGenerator
MetaclopramideHMDB
MetaclopromideHMDB
MethochlopramideHMDB
MethoclopramideHMDB
MetochlopramideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC14H22ClN3O2
Average Molecular Weight299.796
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight299.14005467
IUPAC Name4-amino-5-chloro-N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]-2-methoxybenzamide
Traditional Namemetoclopramide
CAS Registry Number364-62-5
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCNC(=O)C1=CC(Cl)=C(N)C=C1OC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C14H22ClN3O2/c1-4-18(5-2)7-6-17-14(19)10-8-11(15)12(16)9-13(10)20-3/h8-9H,4-7,16H2,1-3H3,(H,17,19)
InChI KeyInChIKey=TTWJBBZEZQICBI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminobenzoic acids and derivatives. These are benzoic acids (or derivative thereof) containing an amine group attached to the benzene moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAminobenzoic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Salicylamide
  • Aminobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Methoxyaniline
  • Benzamide
  • Aminobenzamide
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Substituted aniline
  • Phenol ether
  • Benzoyl
  • Anisole
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aniline
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antiemetics
  • Dopamine Antagonists
  • Prokinetic Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point147.25 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.10e-01 g/LNot Available
LogP1.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.31 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.18ALOGPS
logP1.4ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.49ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.04ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area67.59 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity83.52 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01233
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01233
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01233
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4024
KEGG Compound IDC07868
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMetoclopramide
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15363
Metagene LinkHMDB15363
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound4168
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID107736
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Tonini M, Candura SM, Messori E, Rizzi CA: Therapeutic potential of drugs with mixed 5-HT4 agonist/5-HT3 antagonist action in the control of emesis. Pharmacol Res. 1995 May;31(5):257-60. [7479521 ]
  2. JUSTIN-BESANCON L, LAVILLE C: [ANTIEMETIC ACTION OF METOCLOPRAMIDE WITH RESPECT TO APOMORPHINE AND HYDERGINE]. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1964;158:723-7. [14186927 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular weight:
57572.44
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. Involved in sexual development during fetal life and at puberty.
Gene Name:
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID:
P05093
Molecular weight:
57369.995
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the five types (D1 to D5) of receptors for dopamine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular weight:
50618.9
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. See RE, Lynch AM, Sorg BA: Subchronic administration of clozapine, but not haloperidol or metoclopramide, decreases dopamine D2 receptor messenger RNA levels in the nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen in rats. Neuroscience. 1996 May;72(1):99-104. [8730709 ]
  3. Harrold MW, Sriburi A, Matsumoto K, Miller DD, Farooqui T, Uretsky N: The interaction of ammonium, sulfonium, and sulfide analogues of metoclopramide with the dopamine D2 receptor. J Med Chem. 1993 Oct 15;36(21):3166-70. [8230103 ]
  4. Kishibayashi N, Karasawa A: Stimulating effects of KW-5092, a novel gastroprokinetic agent, on the gastric emptying, small intestinal propulsion and colonic propulsion in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;67(1):45-50. [7745844 ]
  5. Chemnitius JM, Haselmeyer KH, Gonska BD, Kreuzer H, Zech R: Indirect parasympathomimetic activity of metoclopramide: reversible inhibition of cholinesterases from human central nervous system and blood. Pharmacol Res. 1996 Jul-Aug;34(1-2):65-72. [8981558 ]
  6. Dahlof CG, Hargreaves RJ: Pathophysiology and pharmacology of migraine. Is there a place for antiemetics in future treatment strategies? Cephalalgia. 1998 Nov;18(9):593-604. [9876882 ]
  7. Hammer D: Gastroesophageal reflux and prokinetic agents. Neonatal Netw. 2005 Mar-Apr;24(2):51-8; quiz 59-62. [15835479 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
HTR4
Uniprot ID:
Q13639
Molecular weight:
43761.0
References
  1. Guillemot J, Compagnon P, Cartier D, Thouennon E, Bastard C, Lihrmann I, Pichon P, Thuillez C, Plouin PF, Bertherat J, Anouar Y, Kuhn JM, Yon L, Lefebvre H: Metoclopramide stimulates catecholamine- and granin-derived peptide secretion from pheochromocytoma cells through activation of serotonin type 4 (5-HT4) receptors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009 Mar;16(1):281-90. Epub 2008 Oct 23. [18948374 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Preferentially catalyzes the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone via corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone.
Gene Name:
CYP11B2
Uniprot ID:
P19099
Molecular weight:
57559.62
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular weight:
51420.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Burger DM, Wiestner T, Hubler M, Binder H, Keiser M, Arnold S: Effect of anticholinergics (atropine, glycopyrrolate) and prokinetics (metoclopramide, cisapride) on gastric motility in beagles and labrador retrievers. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2006 Mar;53(2):97-107. [16466463 ]
  4. Hammer D: Gastroesophageal reflux and prokinetic agents. Neonatal Netw. 2005 Mar-Apr;24(2):51-8; quiz 59-62. [15835479 ]