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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:38 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15372
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameClomipramine
DescriptionClomipramine, the 3-chloro analog of imipramine, is a dibenzazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, clomipramine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, clomipramine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as clomipramine, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline and desipramine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Clomipramine may be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette's disorder). Unlabeled indications include panic disorder, chronic pain (e.g. central pain, idiopathic pain disorder, tension headache, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain), cataplexy and associated narcolepsy, autistic disorder, trichotillomania, onchophagia, stuttering, premature ejaculation, and premenstrual syndrome. Clomipramine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and demethylated in the liver to its primary active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-(3-chloro-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,F]Azepin-5-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-1-propanamineChEBI
3-(3-chloro-5H-dibenzo[b,F]AZEPIN-5-yl)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-amineChEBI
3-ChloroimipramineChEBI
ChlorimipramineChEBI
g 34586ChEBI
MonochlorimipramineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC19H23ClN2
Average Molecular Weight314.852
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight314.154976453
IUPAC Name(3-{14-chloro-2-azatricyclo[9.4.0.0³,⁸]pentadeca-1(11),3,5,7,12,14-hexaen-2-yl}propyl)dimethylamine
Traditional Nameclomipramine
CAS Registry Number303-49-1
SMILES
CN(C)CCCN1C2=CC=CC=C2CCC2=C1C=C(Cl)C=C2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C19H23ClN2/c1-21(2)12-5-13-22-18-7-4-3-6-15(18)8-9-16-10-11-17(20)14-19(16)22/h3-4,6-7,10-11,14H,5,8-9,12-13H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=GDLIGKIOYRNHDA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dibenzazepines. These are compounds with two benzene rings connected by an azepine ring. Azepine is an unsaturated seven-member heterocycle with one nitrogen atom replacing a carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassBenzazepines
Sub ClassDibenzazepines
Direct ParentDibenzazepines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dibenzazepine
  • Alkyldiarylamine
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Azepine
  • Benzenoid
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point189.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.44e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP4.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.014 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.04ALOGPS
logP4.88ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area6.48 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity95.41 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-066r-6391000000-e57dc447a97807ce527aView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Clomipramine Metabolism PathwaySMP00639Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01242
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01242
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01242
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2699
KEGG Compound IDC06918
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkClomipramine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15372
Metagene LinkHMDB15372
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2801
PDB IDCXX
ChEBI ID47780
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. FDA label

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular weight:
23355.625
References
  1. Baranczyk-Kuzma A, Sawicki J, Kuzma M, Jagiello J: [Tricyclic antidepressants as inhibitors of brain glutathione-S-transferase]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2001 Dec;11(66):472-5. [11899840 ]
  2. Baranczyk-Kuzma A, Kuzma M, Gutowicz M, Kazmierczak B, Sawicki J: Glutathione S-transferase pi as a target for tricyclic antidepressants in human brain. Acta Biochim Pol. 2004;51(1):207-12. [15094841 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular weight:
54297.4
References
  1. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. [9862411 ]
  2. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. [14501155 ]
  3. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. [1296670 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. This receptor is involved in tracheal smooth muscle contraction, bronchoconstriction, and control of aldosterone production
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular weight:
52602.6
References
  1. Hentall ID, Kurle PJ, White TR: Correlations between serotonin level and single-cell firing in the rat's nucleus raphe magnus. Neuroscience. 2000;95(4):1081-8. [10682715 ]
  2. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. [1296670 ]
  3. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. [14501155 ]
  4. Trifunovic RD, Brodie MS: The effects of clomipramine on the excitatory action of ethanol on dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jan;276(1):34-40. [8558452 ]
  5. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. [9862411 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This is one of the several different receptors for 5- hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular weight:
51820.7
References
  1. Sargent PA, Quested DJ, Cowen PJ: Clomipramine enhances the cortisol response to 5-HTP: implications for the therapeutic role of 5-HT2 receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Nov;140(1):120-2. [9862411 ]
  2. Sugimoto Y, Inoue K, Yamada J: The tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine increases plasma glucose levels of mice. J Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Sep;93(1):74-9. [14501155 ]
  3. Contreras CM, Marvan ML, Munoz-Mendez A, Ramirez-Morales A: Cortical and septal responses to dorsal raphe nucleus stimulation in the rat: long-term clomipramine actions. Bol Estud Med Biol. 1992 Jan-Dec;40(1-4):3-7. [1296670 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [12438524 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular weight:
69331.42
References
  1. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  2. Jungkun G, Kuss HJ, Gsell W: Long-term effects of tricyclic antidepressants on norepinephrine kinetics in humans. J Neural Transm. 2001;108(3):349-62. [11341486 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent manner.
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular weight:
70324.165
References
  1. Alvarez JC, Gluck N, Arnulf I, Quintin P, Leboyer M, Pecquery R, Launay JM, Perez-Diaz F, Spreux-Varoquaux O: Decreased platelet serotonin transporter sites and increased platelet inositol triphosphate levels in patients with unipolar depression: effects of clomipramine and fluoxetine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Dec;66(6):617-24. [10613618 ]
  2. Borkowska A, Pilaczynska E, Araszkiewicz A, Rybakowski J: [The effect of sertraline on cognitive functions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder]. Psychiatr Pol. 2002 Nov-Dec;36(6 Suppl):289-95. [12647451 ]
  3. Suhara T, Takano A, Sudo Y, Ichimiya T, Inoue M, Yasuno F, Ikoma Y, Okubo Y: High levels of serotonin transporter occupancy with low-dose clomipramine in comparative occupancy study with fluvoxamine using positron emission tomography. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;60(4):386-91. [12695316 ]
  4. Larsen AK, Brennum LT, Egebjerg J, Sanchez C, Halldin C, Andersen PH: Selectivity of (3)H-MADAM binding to 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters in vitro and in vivo in mice; correlation with behavioural effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Mar;141(6):1015-23. Epub 2004 Mar 1. [14993096 ]
  5. Malizia AL, Melichar JM, Brown DJ, Gunn RN, Reynolds A, Jones T, Nutt DJ: Demonstration of clomipramine and venlafaxine occupation at serotonin reuptake sites in man in vivo. J Psychopharmacol. 1997;11(3):279-81. [9305421 ]
  6. Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E: Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 Dec 11;340(2-3):249-58. [9537821 ]
  7. Gillman PK: Tricyclic antidepressant pharmacology and therapeutic drug interactions updated. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;151(6):737-48. Epub 2007 Apr 30. [17471183 ]