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Record Information
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:42 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAliskiren
DescriptionAliskiren is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a renin inhibitor. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2007 for the treatment of hypertension.Renin is secreted by the kidney in response to decreases in blood volume and renal perfusion. Renin cleaves angiotensinogen to form the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I (Ang I). Ang I is converted to the active octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and non-ACE pathways. Ang II is a powerful vasoconstrictor and leads to the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and prejunctional nerve endings. It also promotes aldosterone secretion and sodium reabsorption. Together, these effects increase blood pressure. Ang II also inhibits renin release, thus providing a negative feedback to the system. This cycle, from renin through angiotensin to aldosterone and its associated negative feedback loop, is known as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor, decreasing plasma renin activity (PRA) and inhibiting the conversion of angiotensinogen to Ang I. Whether aliskiren affects other RAAS components, e.g., ACE or non-ACE pathways, is not known. All agents that inhibit the RAAS, including renin inhibitors, suppress the negative feedback loop, leading to a compensatory rise in plasma renin concentration. When this rise occurs during treatment with ACE inhibitors and ARBs, the result is increased levels of PRA. During treatment with aliskiren, however, the effect of increased renin levels is blocked, so that PRA, Ang I and Ang II are all reduced, whether aliskiren is used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. PRA reductions in clinical trials ranged from approximately 50%-80%, were not dose-related and did not correlate with blood pressure reductions. The clinical implications of the differences in effect on PRA are not known.
Chemical FormulaC30H53N3O6
Average Molecular Weight551.7583
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight551.393436443
IUPAC Name(2S,4S,5S,7S)-5-amino-N-(2-carbamoyl-2,2-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy-7-{[4-methoxy-3-(3-methoxypropoxy)phenyl]methyl}-8-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)nonanamide
Traditional Namealiskiren
CAS Registry Number173334-57-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as delta amino acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a carboxylic acid group and an amino group at the C5 carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentDelta amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Delta amino acid or derivatives
  • Phenylbutylamine
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Anisole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty amide
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusExpected but not Quantified
  • Drug
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility2.10e-03 g/LNot Available
LogP3.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0021 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.56ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.57ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area146.13 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count19ChemAxon
Refractivity154.32 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability64.25 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01258
  • Not Applicable
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01258
  • Not Applicable
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01258
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4591452
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAliskiren
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15387
Metagene LinkHMDB15387
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5493444
ChEBI ID601027
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Vaidyanathan S, Jarugula V, Dieterich HA, Howard D, Dole WP: Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aliskiren. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(8):515-31. [18611061 ]
  2. Gradman AH, Schmieder RE, Lins RL, Nussberger J, Chiang Y, Bedigian MP: Aliskiren, a novel orally effective renin inhibitor, provides dose-dependent antihypertensive efficacy and placebo-like tolerability in hypertensive patients. Circulation. 2005 Mar 1;111(8):1012-8. Epub 2005 Feb 21. [15723979 ]
  3. Staessen JA, Li Y, Richart T: Oral renin inhibitors. Lancet. 2006 Oct 21;368(9545):1449-56. [17055947 ]


General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Vaidyanathan S, Jarugula V, Dieterich HA, Howard D, Dole WP: Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aliskiren. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2008;47(8):515-31. [18611061 ]
General function:
Involved in aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Renin is a highly specific endopeptidase, whose only known function is to generate angiotensin I from angiotensinogen in the plasma, initiating a cascade of reactions that produce an elevation of blood pressure and increased sodium retention by the kidney
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Nussberger J, Wuerzner G, Jensen C, Brunner HR: Angiotensin II suppression in humans by the orally active renin inhibitor Aliskiren (SPP100): comparison with enalapril. Hypertension. 2002 Jan;39(1):E1-8. [11799102 ]
  2. Wood JM, Maibaum J, Rahuel J, Grutter MG, Cohen NC, Rasetti V, Ruger H, Goschke R, Stutz S, Fuhrer W, Schilling W, Rigollier P, Yamaguchi Y, Cumin F, Baum HP, Schnell CR, Herold P, Mah R, Jensen C, O'Brien E, Stanton A, Bedigian MP: Structure-based design of aliskiren, a novel orally effective renin inhibitor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Sep 5;308(4):698-705. [12927775 ]
  3. Menard J, Guyene TT, Peyrard S, Azizi M: Conformational changes in prorenin during renin inhibition in vitro and in vivo. J Hypertens. 2006 Mar;24(3):529-34. [16467656 ]
  4. Azizi M, Webb R, Nussberger J, Hollenberg NK: Renin inhibition with aliskiren: where are we now, and where are we going? J Hypertens. 2006 Feb;24(2):243-56. [16508564 ]
  5. Gradman AH, Vivas Y: New drugs for hypertension: what do they offer? Curr Hypertens Rep. 2006 Oct;8(5):425-32. [16965731 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]