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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:32:42 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15390
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSitagliptin
DescriptionSitagliptin is a new oral hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic drug) of the new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drugs. This enzyme-inhibiting drug is to be used either alone or in combination with metformin or a thiazolidinedione for control of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The drug works to competitively inhibit a protein/enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4), that results in an increased amount of active incretins (GLP-1 and GIP), reduced amount of release of glucagon (diminishes its release) and increased release of insulin.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R)-4-oxo-4-[3-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amineChEBI
MK-0431ChEBI
SitagliptinaChEBI
SitagliptineChEBI
SitagliptinumChEBI
SitagliptanHMDB
Sitagliptin phosphateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC16H15F6N5O
Average Molecular Weight407.3136
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight407.118079357
IUPAC Name(3R)-3-amino-1-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5H,6H,7H,8H-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7-yl]-4-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-1-one
Traditional Namesitagliptin
CAS Registry Number486460-32-6
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC(=O)N1CCN2C(C1)=NN=C2C(F)(F)F)CC1=CC(F)=C(F)C=C1F
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H15F6N5O/c17-10-6-12(19)11(18)4-8(10)3-9(23)5-14(28)26-1-2-27-13(7-26)24-25-15(27)16(20,21)22/h4,6,9H,1-3,5,7,23H2/t9-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=MFFMDFFZMYYVKS-SECBINFHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the beta carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentBeta amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Triazolopyrazine
  • Aralkylamine
  • Halobenzene
  • Fluorobenzene
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrazine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl fluoride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • 1,2,4-triazole
  • Triazole
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Azole
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.40e-02 g/LNot Available
LogP1.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.034 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.95ALOGPS
logP1.26ChemAxon
logS-4.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.04 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity87.49 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.66 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01261
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01261
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01261
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3571948
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSitagliptin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15390
Metagene LinkHMDB15390
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound4369359
PDB ID715
ChEBI ID40237
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Herman GA, Stevens C, Van Dyck K, Bergman A, Yi B, De Smet M, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanen M, Tanaka W, Wang AQ, Zeng W, Musson D, Winchell G, Davies MJ, Ramael S, Gottesdiener KM, Wagner JA: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sitagliptin, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, in healthy subjects: results from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with single oral doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Dec;78(6):675-88. [16338283 ]
  2. Herman GA, Bergman A, Liu F, Stevens C, Wang AQ, Zeng W, Chen L, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanen M, Tanaka W, Meehan AG, Lasseter K, Dilzer S, Blum R, Wagner JA: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of the oral DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin in middle-aged obese subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;46(8):876-86. [16855072 ]
  3. Karasik A, Aschner P, Katzeff H, Davies MJ, Stein PP: Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a review of recent clinical trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Feb;24(2):489-96. [18182122 ]
  4. Pratley RE, Salsali A: Inhibition of DPP-4: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Apr;23(4):919-31. [17407649 ]
  5. Richter B, Bandeira-Echtler E, Bergerhoff K, Lerch C: Emerging role of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(4):753-68. [19065993 ]
  6. Bergman A, Ebel D, Liu F, Stone J, Wang A, Zeng W, Chen L, Dilzer S, Lasseter K, Herman G, Wagner J, Krishna R: Absolute bioavailability of sitagliptin, an oral dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in healthy volunteers. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2007 Sep;28(6):315-22. [17575559 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Scheen AJ: Pharmacokinetics of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Aug;12(8):648-58. [20590741 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Scheen AJ: Pharmacokinetics of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Aug;12(8):648-58. [20590741 ]
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Cell surface glycoprotein receptor involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T-cell activation. Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell coactivation, by binding at least ADA, CAV1, IGF2R, and PTPRC. Its binding to CAV1 and CARD11 induces T-cell proliferation and NF- kappa-B activation in a T-cell receptor/CD3-dependent manner. Its interaction with ADA also regulates lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion. In association with FAP is involved in the pericellular proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the migration and invasion of endothelial cells into the ECM. May be involved in the promotion of lymphatic endothelial cells adhesion, migration and tube formation. When overexpressed, enhanced cell proliferation, a process inhibited by GPC3. Acts also as a serine exopeptidase with a dipeptidyl peptidase activity that regulates various physiological processes by cleaving peptides in the circulation, including many chemokines, mitogenic growth factors, neuropeptides and peptide hormones. Removes N-terminal dipeptides sequentially from polypeptides having unsubstituted N-termini provided that the penultimate residue is proline
Gene Name:
DPP4
Uniprot ID:
P27487
Molecular weight:
88277.9
References
  1. Herman GA, Stevens C, Van Dyck K, Bergman A, Yi B, De Smet M, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanen M, Tanaka W, Wang AQ, Zeng W, Musson D, Winchell G, Davies MJ, Ramael S, Gottesdiener KM, Wagner JA: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sitagliptin, an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, in healthy subjects: results from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with single oral doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Dec;78(6):675-88. [16338283 ]
  2. Bergman AJ, Stevens C, Zhou Y, Yi B, Laethem M, De Smet M, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanaka W, Zeng W, Tanen M, Wang AQ, Chen L, Winchell G, Davies MJ, Ramael S, Wagner JA, Herman GA: Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of multiple oral doses of sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitor: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in healthy male volunteers. Clin Ther. 2006 Jan;28(1):55-72. [16490580 ]
  3. Gallwitz B: Therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus based on incretin action. Minerva Endocrinol. 2006 Jun;31(2):133-47. [16682937 ]
  4. Herman GA, Bergman A, Liu F, Stevens C, Wang AQ, Zeng W, Chen L, Snyder K, Hilliard D, Tanen M, Tanaka W, Meehan AG, Lasseter K, Dilzer S, Blum R, Wagner JA: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of the oral DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin in middle-aged obese subjects. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;46(8):876-86. [16855072 ]
  5. Miller S, St Onge EL: Sitagliptin: a dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2006 Jul-Aug;40(7-8):1336-43. [16868220 ]
  6. Karasik A, Aschner P, Katzeff H, Davies MJ, Stein PP: Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a review of recent clinical trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2008 Feb;24(2):489-96. [18182122 ]
  7. Pratley RE, Salsali A: Inhibition of DPP-4: a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Apr;23(4):919-31. [17407649 ]
  8. Lyseng-Williamson KA: Sitagliptin. Drugs. 2007;67(4):587-97. [17352516 ]
  9. Hermansen K, Kipnes M, Luo E, Fanurik D, Khatami H, Stein P: Efficacy and safety of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, sitagliptin, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on glimepiride alone or on glimepiride and metformin. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 Sep;9(5):733-45. Epub 2007 Jun 26. [17593236 ]
  10. Gallwitz B: Sitagliptin: Profile of a novel DPP-4 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Drugs Today (Barc). 2007 Jan;43(1):13-25. [17315049 ]
  11. Richter B, Bandeira-Echtler E, Bergerhoff K, Lerch C: Emerging role of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2008;4(4):753-68. [19065993 ]
  12. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Scheen AJ: Pharmacokinetics of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Aug;12(8):648-58. [20590741 ]