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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:33:04 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15479
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTiotropium
DescriptionTiotropium is a long-acting, 24 hour, anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tiotropium is a muscarinic receptor antagonist, on topical application it acts mainly on M3 muscarinic receptors located in the airways to produce smooth muscle relaxation, thus producing a bronchodilatory effect.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Tiotropium bromideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC19H22NO4S2
Average Molecular Weight392.512
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight392.099024577
IUPAC Name(1R,2S,4R,5S)-7-{[2-hydroxy-2,2-bis(thiophen-2-yl)acetyl]oxy}-9,9-dimethyl-3-oxa-9-azatricyclo[3.3.1.0²,⁴]nonan-9-ium
Traditional Nametiotropium
CAS Registry Number186691-13-4
SMILES
C[N+]1(C)[C@H]2CC(C[C@@H]1[C@@H]1O[C@H]21)OC(=O)C(O)(C1=CC=CS1)C1=CC=CS1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C19H22NO4S2/c1-20(2)12-9-11(10-13(20)17-16(12)24-17)23-18(21)19(22,14-5-3-7-25-14)15-6-4-8-26-15/h3-8,11-13,16-17,22H,9-10H2,1-2H3/q+1/t11?,12-,13+,16+,17-
InChI KeyInChIKey=LERNTVKEWCAPOY-KYQOMENCSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as morpholines. These are organic compounds containing a morpholine moiety, which consists of a six-member aliphatic saturated ring with the formula C4H9NO, where the oxygen and nitrogen atoms lie at positions 1 and 4, respectively.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassOxazinanes
Sub ClassMorpholines
Direct ParentMorpholines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Piperidine
  • Morpholine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Thiophene
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Oxirane
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Anticholinergic Agents
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Cholinergic Antagonists
  • Muscarinic Antagonists
  • Parasympatholytics
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.56e-02 g/LNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.016 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.55ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area59.06 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity109.18 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01409
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01409
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01409
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2343227
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTiotropium
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15479
Metagene LinkHMDB15479
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3086655
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM3
Uniprot ID:
P20309
Molecular weight:
66127.4
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  2. Hansel TT, Barnes PJ: Tiotropium bromide: a novel once-daily anticholinergic bronchodilator for the treatment of COPD. Drugs Today (Barc). 2002 Sep;38(9):585-600. [12582447 ]
  3. Barnes PJ: Tiotropium bromide. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001 Apr;10(4):733-40. [11281822 ]
  4. Barnes PJ, Belvisi MG, Mak JC, Haddad EB, O'Connor B: Tiotropium bromide (Ba 679 BR), a novel long-acting muscarinic antagonist for the treatment of obstructive airways disease. Life Sci. 1995;56(11-12):853-9. [10188785 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular weight:
51420.4
References
  1. Hansel TT, Barnes PJ: Tiotropium bromide: a novel once-daily anticholinergic bronchodilator for the treatment of COPD. Drugs Today (Barc). 2002 Sep;38(9):585-600. [12582447 ]
  2. Barnes PJ: Tiotropium bromide. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001 Apr;10(4):733-40. [11281822 ]
  3. Barnes PJ, Belvisi MG, Mak JC, Haddad EB, O'Connor B: Tiotropium bromide (Ba 679 BR), a novel long-acting muscarinic antagonist for the treatment of obstructive airways disease. Life Sci. 1995;56(11-12):853-9. [10188785 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular weight:
51714.6
References
  1. Hansel TT, Barnes PJ: Tiotropium bromide: a novel once-daily anticholinergic bronchodilator for the treatment of COPD. Drugs Today (Barc). 2002 Sep;38(9):585-600. [12582447 ]
  2. Barnes PJ, Belvisi MG, Mak JC, Haddad EB, O'Connor B: Tiotropium bromide (Ba 679 BR), a novel long-acting muscarinic antagonist for the treatment of obstructive airways disease. Life Sci. 1995;56(11-12):853-9. [10188785 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Nakamura T, Nakanishi T, Haruta T, Shirasaka Y, Keogh JP, Tamai I: Transport of ipratropium, an anti-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease drug, is mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters in human bronchial epithelial cells: implications for carrier-mediated pulmonary absorption. Mol Pharm. 2010 Feb 1;7(1):187-95. [20020740 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET)
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular weight:
62154.5
References
  1. Nakamura T, Nakanishi T, Haruta T, Shirasaka Y, Keogh JP, Tamai I: Transport of ipratropium, an anti-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease drug, is mediated by organic cation/carnitine transporters in human bronchial epithelial cells: implications for carrier-mediated pulmonary absorption. Mol Pharm. 2010 Feb 1;7(1):187-95. [20020740 ]