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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:33:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15504
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAlfacalcidol
DescriptionAlfacalcidol is an active metabolite of Vitamin D, which performs important functions in regulation of the calcium balance and the bone metabolism. Alfacalcidol is Vitamin D-hormone analog which is activated by the enzyme 25-hydroxylase in the liver for systemic and in osteoblasts for local D-hormone actions. It possesses a unique pattern of pleiotropic effects on, e.g. gut, bone, pararthyroids, muscle and brain. Alfacalcidol is superior to plain vitamin D (cholecalciferol) because the final kidney activation of the latter is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism. (PMID:17438884 ,17668216 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(5Z,7E)-9,10-seco-5,7,10(19)-Cholestatrien-1alpha,3beta-diolChEBI
1alpha-Hydroxy-vitamin D3ChEBI
1alpha-HydroxycholecalciferolChEBI
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D3ChEBI
9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-1alpha,3beta-diolChEBI
AlfacalcidolumChEBI
AlsiodolChEBI
(5Z,7E)-9,10-seco-5,7,10(19)-Cholestatrien-1a,3b-diolGenerator
(5Z,7E)-9,10-seco-5,7,10(19)-Cholestatrien-1α,3β-diolGenerator
1a-Hydroxy-vitamin D3Generator
1α-hydroxy-vitamin D3Generator
1a-HydroxycholecalciferolGenerator
1α-hydroxycholecalciferolGenerator
1a-Hydroxyvitamin D3Generator
1α-hydroxyvitamin D3Generator
9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-1a,3b-diolGenerator
9,10-Secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-1α,3β-diolGenerator
1-HydroxycholecalciferolHMDB
Chemical FormulaC27H44O2
Average Molecular Weight400.6371
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight400.334130652
IUPAC Name(1R,3S,5Z)-5-{2-[(1R,3aS,4E,7aR)-7a-methyl-1-[(2R)-6-methylheptan-2-yl]-octahydro-1H-inden-4-ylidene]ethylidene}-4-methylidenecyclohexane-1,3-diol
Traditional Nameetα
CAS Registry Number41294-56-8
SMILES
CC(C)CCC[C@@H](C)[C@@]1([H])CC[C@@]2([H])\C(CCC[C@]12C)=C\C=C1\C[C@@H](O)C[C@H](O)C1=C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C27H44O2/c1-18(2)8-6-9-19(3)24-13-14-25-21(10-7-15-27(24,25)5)11-12-22-16-23(28)17-26(29)20(22)4/h11-12,18-19,23-26,28-29H,4,6-10,13-17H2,1-3,5H3/b21-11+,22-12-/t19-,23-,24-,25+,26+,27-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=OFHCOWSQAMBJIW-AVJTYSNKSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as triterpenoids. These are terpene molecules containing 8 isoprene units.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTriterpenoids
Direct ParentTriterpenoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Polycyclic triterpenoid
  • Triterpenoid
  • Steroid
  • Cyclohexanol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Pharmaceutical
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point136 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.63e-03 g/LNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0016 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.68ALOGPS
logP5.82ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity124.7 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability50.55 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01436
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01436
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01436
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4445376
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15504
Metagene LinkHMDB15504
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5282181
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID1125553
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Galesanu C, Ciubotariu C, Melnic G, Galesanu MR: [Postmenopausal osteoporosis. Digital Rx radiogrammetry in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment with alfacalcidol]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2006 Oct-Dec;110(4):833-41. [17438884 ]
  2. Ringe JD, Schacht E: Improving the outcome of established therapies for osteoporosis by adding the active D-hormone analog alfacalcidol. Rheumatol Int. 2007 Dec;28(2):103-11. Epub 2007 Aug 1. [17668216 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) plays an important role in normal bone growth, calcium metabolism, and tissue differentiation.
Gene Name:
CYP27B1
Uniprot ID:
O15528
Molecular weight:
56503.475
References
  1. Uchida E, Kagawa N, Sakaki T, Urushino N, Sawada N, Kamakura M, Ohta M, Kato S, Inouye K: Purification and characterization of mouse CYP27B1 overproduced by an Escherichia coli system coexpressing molecular chaperonins GroEL/ES. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Oct 15;323(2):505-11. [15369780 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Regulates transcription of hormone sensitive genes via its association with the WINAC complex, a chromatin-remodeling complex. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with the WINAC complex subunit BAZ1B/WSTF, which mediates the interaction with acetylated histones, an essential step for VDR-promoter association. Plays a central role in calcium homeostasis
Gene Name:
VDR
Uniprot ID:
P11473
Molecular weight:
48288.6
References
  1. Reinhart GA: Vitamin D analogs: novel therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disease? Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Sep;5(9):947-51. [15503649 ]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
  3. Fujishima T, Tsuji G, Tanaka C, Harayama H: Novel vitamin D receptor ligands having a carboxyl group as an anchor to arginine 274 in the ligand-binding domain. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010 Jul;121(1-2):60-2. Epub 2010 May 6. [20435140 ]