You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2017-10-23 19:06:32 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015505
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15505
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlutethimide
DescriptionGlutethimide is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs. [PubChem]Glutethimide seems to be a GABA agonist which helps induced sedation. It also induces CYP 2D6. When taken with codeine, it enables the body to convert higher amounts of the codeine (higher than the average 5 - 10%) to morphine. The general sedative effect also adds to the power of the combination.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Ethyl-2-phenylglutarimideKegg
DoridenKegg
GlutathimidHMDB
GlutethimidHMDB
GlutetimidHMDB
GlutetimideHMDB
GluthetimideHMDB
NoxironMeSH
Chemical FormulaC13H15NO2
Average Molecular Weight217.2637
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight217.110278729
IUPAC Name3-ethyl-3-phenylpiperidine-2,6-dione
Traditional Nameglutethimide
CAS Registry Number77-21-4
SMILES
CCC1(CCC(=O)NC1=O)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C13H15NO2/c1-2-13(10-6-4-3-5-7-10)9-8-11(15)14-12(13)16/h3-7H,2,8-9H2,1H3,(H,14,15,16)
InChI KeyJMBQKKAJIKAWKF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as phenylpiperidines. These are compounds containing a phenylpiperidine skeleton, which consists of a piperidine bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassPiperidines
Direct ParentPhenylpiperidines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpiperidine
  • Piperidinedione
  • Delta-lactam
  • Piperidinone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Carboxylic acid imide
  • Dicarboximide
  • Carboxylic acid imide, n-unsubstituted
  • Lactam
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

Role

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Indirect biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point84 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.33 g/LNot Available
LogP1.90HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.33 g/LALOGPS
logP1.89ALOGPS
logP2.13ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.69ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.17 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity60.65 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability23.15 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - CI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0090000000-df13dd29711d257fd7b0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-014r-4900000000-8d3add816c0b57475d49View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-014i-0910000000-d4d4c3a1f5db854968c0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0190000000-72b760efeea835d3cf1eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-0970000000-0603b8569eb1b10cffbeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014l-7900000000-7cca93b10fbffd2523fbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0190000000-034582ee53afcabdc9bdView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-2690000000-bc585fc480978eb7f6cbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9500000000-be385f1bbd1a5d15aaacView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
No entries found
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01437 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01437 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01437
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3367
KEGG Compound IDC07489
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGlutethimide
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3487
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID251300
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name:
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID:
P05108
Molecular weight:
60101.87
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Pearson MW, Roberts CJ: Drug induction of hepatic enzymes in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1984 Sep;13(5):313-6. [PubMed:6496244 ]
  2. Petik D, Acs N, Banhidy F, Czeizel AE: A study of the effects of large doses of glutethimide that were used for self-poisoning during pregnancy on human fetuses. Toxicol Ind Health. 2008 Feb-Mar;24(1-2):69-78. doi: 10.1177/0748233708089014. [PubMed:18818183 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transport
Specific function:
GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain, mediates neuronal inhibition by binding to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel
Gene Name:
GABRA1
Uniprot ID:
P14867
Molecular weight:
51801.4
References
  1. Skerritt JH, Johnston GA: Interactions of some anaesthetic, convulsant, and anticonvulsant drugs at GABA-benzodiazepine receptor-ionophore complexes in rat brain synaptosomal membranes. Neurochem Res. 1983 Oct;8(10):1351-62. [PubMed:6318143 ]