You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:33:12 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15516
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDextroamphetamine
DescriptionDextroamphetamine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is the dextrorotary stereoisomer of the amphetamine molecule, which can take two different forms. It is a slightly polar, weak base and is lipophilic. The exact mechanism of action is not known. Dextroamphetamine stimulates the release of norepinephrine from central adrenergic receptors. At higher dosages, it causes release of dopamine from the mesocorticolimbic system and the nigrostriatal dopamine systems by reversal of the monoamine transporters. Dextroamphetamine may also act as a direct agonist on central 5-HT receptors and may inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO). In the periphery, amphetamines are believed to cause the release of noradrenaline by acting on the adrenergic nerve terminals and alpha- and beta-receptors. Modulation of serotonergic pathways may contribute to the calming affect.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+)-(S)-AmphetamineChEBI
(+)-alpha-MethylphenethylamineChEBI
(+)-alpha-MethylphenylethylamineChEBI
(+)-AmphetamineChEBI
(AlphaS)-alpha-methylbenzeneethanamineChEBI
(S)-(+)-AmphetamineChEBI
(S)-(+)-beta-PhenylisopropylamineChEBI
(S)-1-Phenyl-2-aminopropaneChEBI
(S)-1-Phenyl-2-propylamineChEBI
(S)-alpha-MethylbenzeneethanamineChEBI
D-AmphetamineChEBI
DexamphetamineChEBI
(S)-AmphetamineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H13N
Average Molecular Weight135.2062
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight135.104799421
IUPAC Name(2S)-1-phenylpropan-2-amine
Traditional Nameamphetamine
CAS Registry Number51-64-9
SMILES
C[C@H](N)CC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H13N/c1-8(10)7-9-5-3-2-4-6-9/h2-6,8H,7,10H2,1H3/t8-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=KWTSXDURSIMDCE-QMMMGPOBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentAmphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Phenylpropane
  • Aralkylamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Adrenergic Agents
  • Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Dopamine Agents
  • Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
  • Sympathomimetics
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point< 25 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.74e+00 g/LNot Available
LogP1.76SANGSTER (1994); similar isomer
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.74 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.85ALOGPS
logP1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity43.71 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.08 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-f40d32a5bced4783345aView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01576
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01576
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0-4 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01576
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5621
KEGG Compound IDC07884
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDextroamphetamine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15516
Metagene LinkHMDB15516
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5826
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4469
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Warneke L: Psychostimulants in psychiatry. Can J Psychiatry. 1990 Feb;35(1):3-10. [2180548 ]
  2. Yamada H, Baba T, Hirata Y, Oguri K, Yoshimura H: Studies on N-demethylation of methamphetamine by liver microsomes of guinea-pigs and rats: the role of flavin-containing mono-oxygenase and cytochrome P-450 systems. Xenobiotica. 1984 Nov;14(11):861-6. [6506758 ]
  3. Wagner GJ, Rabkin R: Effects of dextroamphetamine on depression and fatigue in men with HIV: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Jun;61(6):436-40. [10901342 ]
  4. Butefisch CM, Davis BC, Sawaki L, Waldvogel D, Classen J, Kopylev L, Cohen LG: Modulation of use-dependent plasticity by d-amphetamine. Ann Neurol. 2002 Jan;51(1):59-68. [11782985 ]
  5. Martinsson L, Yang X, Beck O, Wahlgren NG, Eksborg S: Pharmacokinetics of dexamphetamine in acute stroke. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2003 Sep-Oct;26(5):270-6. [14520168 ]
  6. Greer CA, Alpern HP: Maturational changes related to dopamine in the effects of d-amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine, and strychnine on seizure susceptibility. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1979 Sep;64(3):255-60. [116267 ]
  7. Lile JA, Stoops WW, Durell TM, Glaser PE, Rush CR: Discriminative-stimulus, self-reported, performance, and cardiovascular effects of atomoxetine in methylphenidate-trained humans. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 May;14(2):136-47. [16756417 ]
  8. Patel JB, Migler B: A sensitive and selective monkey conflict test. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1982 Oct;17(4):645-9. [7178177 ]
  9. Chiueh CC, Moore KE: D-amphetamine-induced release of "newly synthesized" and "stored" dopamine from the caudate nucleus in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1975 Mar;192(3):642-53. [1120962 ]
  10. Glick SD, Cox RD, Greenstein S: Relationship of rats' spatial preferences to effects of d-amphetamine on timing behavior. Eur J Pharmacol. 1975 Aug;33(1):173-82. [1236804 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles. Requisite for vesicular amine storage prior to secretion via exocytosis
Gene Name:
SLC18A2
Uniprot ID:
Q05940
Molecular weight:
55712.1
References
  1. Sulzer D, Chen TK, Lau YY, Kristensen H, Rayport S, Ewing A: Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport. J Neurosci. 1995 May;15(5 Pt 2):4102-8. [7751968 ]
  2. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [15955613 ]
General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID:
Q01959
Molecular weight:
68494.255
References
  1. Zhen J, Chen N, Reith ME: Differences in interactions with the dopamine transporter as revealed by diminishment of Na(+) gradient and membrane potential: dopamine versus other substrates. Neuropharmacology. 2005 Nov;49(6):769-79. Epub 2005 Aug 24. [16122767 ]
  2. Kuczenski R, Segal DS, Cho AK, Melega W: Hippocampus norepinephrine, caudate dopamine and serotonin, and behavioral responses to the stereoisomers of amphetamine and methamphetamine. J Neurosci. 1995 Feb;15(2):1308-17. [7869099 ]
  3. Rothman RB, Dersch CM, Ananthan S, Partilla JS: Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. 13. Identification of "agonist" and "antagonist" allosteric modulators of amphetamine-induced dopamine release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 May;329(2):718-28. Epub 2009 Feb 24. [19244097 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular weight:
51486.0
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular weight:
56835.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for trace amines, including beta- phenylethylamine (b-PEA), p-tyramine (p-TYR), octopamine and tryptamine, with highest affinity for b-PEA and p-TYR. Unresponsive to classical biogenic amines, such as epinephrine and histamine and only partially activated by dopamine and serotonine. Trace amines are biogenic amines present in very low levels in mammalian tissues. Although some trace amines have clearly defined roles as neurotransmitters in invertebrates, the extent to which they function as true neurotransmitters in vertebrates has remained speculative. Trace amines are likely to be involved in a variety of physiological functions that have yet to be fully understood. The signal transduced by this receptor is mediated by the G(s)-class of G-proteins which activate adenylate cyclase
Gene Name:
TAAR1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RJ0
Molecular weight:
39091.3
References
  1. Reese EA, Bunzow JR, Arttamangkul S, Sonders MS, Grandy DK: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 displays species-dependent stereoselectivity for isomers of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and para-hydroxyamphetamine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):178-86. Epub 2007 Jan 11. [17218486 ]
  2. Xie Z, Westmoreland SV, Bahn ME, Chen GL, Yang H, Vallender EJ, Yao WD, Madras BK, Miller GM: Rhesus monkey trace amine-associated receptor 1 signaling: enhancement by monoamine transporters and attenuation by the D2 autoreceptor in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):116-27. Epub 2007 Jan 18. [17234900 ]
  3. Wolinsky TD, Swanson CJ, Smith KE, Zhong H, Borowsky B, Seeman P, Branchek T, Gerald CP: The Trace Amine 1 receptor knockout mouse: an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav. 2007 Oct;6(7):628-39. Epub 2006 Dec 21. [17212650 ]
  4. Xie Z, Miller GM: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a modulator of the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr;321(1):128-36. Epub 2007 Jan 18. [17234899 ]
  5. Miller GM, Verrico CD, Jassen A, Konar M, Yang H, Panas H, Bahn M, Johnson R, Madras BK: Primate trace amine receptor 1 modulation by the dopamine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jun;313(3):983-94. Epub 2005 Mar 11. [15764732 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular weight:
69331.42
References
  1. Dlugos A, Freitag C, Hohoff C, McDonald J, Cook EH, Deckert J, de Wit H: Norepinephrine transporter gene variation modulates acute response to D-amphetamine. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jun 1;61(11):1296-305. Epub 2007 Jan 17. [17239355 ]
  2. Dlugos AM, Hamidovic A, Palmer AA, de Wit H: Further evidence of association between amphetamine response and SLC6A2 gene variants. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Oct;206(3):501-11. [19727679 ]
  3. Burnette WB, Bailey MD, Kukoyi S, Blakely RD, Trowbridge CG, Justice JB Jr: Human norepinephrine transporter kinetics using rotating disk electrode voltammetry. Anal Chem. 1996 Sep 1;68(17):2932-8. [8794928 ]