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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 02:52:20 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015634
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15634
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSaxagliptin
DescriptionSaxagliptin (rINN), previously identified as BMS-477118, is a new oral hypoglycemic (anti-diabetic drug) of the new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor class of drugs. It was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb. A New Drug Application for saxagliptin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was submitted to the FDA in June 2008. It was based on a drug development program with 8 randomized trials: 1 phase 2 dose-ranging (2.5 - 100 mg/d) study; 6 phase 3, 24-week controlled trials with additional controlled follow-up from 12 to 42 months, double-blinded throughout; and one 12-week mechanism-of-action trial with a 2-year follow-up period. In June 2008, it was announced that Onglyza would be the trade name under which saxagliptin will be marketed.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(1S,3S,5S)-2-((2S)-amino(3-hydroxytricyclo(3.3.1.13,7)Dec-1-yl)acetyl)-2-azabicyclo(3.1.0)hexane-3-carbonitrileChEBI
BMS 477118ChEBI
BMS-477118ChEBI
OnglyzaHMDB
3-Hydroxyadamantylglycine-4,5-methanoprolinenitrile hydrateMeSH
Chemical FormulaC18H25N3O2
Average Molecular Weight315.41
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight315.194677059
IUPAC Name(1S,3S,5S)-2-[(2S)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxyadamantan-1-yl)acetyl]-2-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-3-carbonitrile
Traditional Namesaxagliptin
CAS Registry Number361442-04-8
SMILES
N[C@H](C(=O)N1[C@H]2C[C@H]2C[C@H]1C#N)C12CC3CC(CC(O)(C3)C1)C2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C18H25N3O2/c19-8-13-2-12-3-14(12)21(13)16(22)15(20)17-4-10-1-11(5-17)7-18(23,6-10)9-17/h10-15,23H,1-7,9,20H2/t10?,11?,12-,13+,14+,15-,17?,18?/m1/s1
InChI KeyQGJUIPDUBHWZPV-SGTAVMJGSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as alpha amino acid amides. These are amide derivatives of alpha amino acids.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentAlpha amino acid amides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • N-acyl-piperidine
  • N-acylpyrrolidine
  • Piperidine
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carbonitrile
  • Nitrile
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Cell and elements:

Role

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.26 g/LALOGPS
logP0.88ALOGPS
logP-0.08ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area90.35 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity83.99 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability34.22 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0ue9-9810000000-9ea6dee5e5df7feeccf4View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0w2i-9640000000-edbf7dd75a87c2e60523View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00kb-0595000000-b2310ee91b2c4452305fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03e9-1920000000-c732c7118b29d97a0034View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03di-2900000000-e667b1c85a4362bf4439View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-03di-0029000000-d07ae8c4becc497aefbfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0bta-1954000000-e69611219b56c95d4fccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-8900000000-c3f60d50781702a5ee87View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB06335 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB06335 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB06335
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID9419005
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSaxagliptin
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound11243969
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID460723
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Barnett A: DPP-4 inhibitors and their potential role in the management of type 2 diabetes. Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Nov;60(11):1454-70. [PubMed:17073841 ]
  2. Crepaldi G, Carruba M, Comaschi M, Del Prato S, Frajese G, Paolisso G: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and their role in Type 2 diabetes management. J Endocrinol Invest. 2007 Jul-Aug;30(7):610-4. [PubMed:17848846 ]
  3. Metzler WJ, Yanchunas J, Weigelt C, Kish K, Klei HE, Xie D, Zhang Y, Corbett M, Tamura JK, He B, Hamann LG, Kirby MS, Marcinkeviciene J: Involvement of DPP-IV catalytic residues in enzyme-saxagliptin complex formation. Protein Sci. 2008 Feb;17(2):240-50. doi: 10.1110/ps.073253208. [PubMed:18227430 ]
  4. Rosenstock J, Sankoh S, List JF: Glucose-lowering activity of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor saxagliptin in drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008 May;10(5):376-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00876.x. Epub 2008 Mar 18. [PubMed:18355324 ]
  5. Golightly LK, Drayna CC, McDermott MT: Comparative clinical pharmacokinetics of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2012 Aug 1;51(8):501-14. doi: 10.2165/11632930-000000000-00000. [PubMed:22686547 ]
  6. Ali S, Fonseca V: Saxagliptin overview: special focus on safety and adverse effects. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2013 Jan;12(1):103-9. doi: 10.1517/14740338.2013.741584. Epub 2012 Nov 9. [PubMed:23137182 ]
  7. Russell S: Incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review of direct comparisons of efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013 Apr;35(2):159-72. doi: 10.1007/s11096-012-9729-9. Epub 2012 Dec 22. [PubMed:23263796 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Upreti VV, Boulton DW, Li L, Ching A, Su H, Lacreta FP, Patel CG: Effect of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;72(1):92-102. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03937.x. [PubMed:21651615 ]
  2. Patel CG, Kornhauser D, Vachharajani N, Komoroski B, Brenner E, Handschuh del Corral M, Li L, Boulton DW: Saxagliptin, a potent, selective inhibitor of DPP-4, does not alter the pharmacokinetics of three oral antidiabetic drugs (metformin, glyburide or pioglitazone) in healthy subjects. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Jul;13(7):604-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01381.x. [PubMed:21332626 ]
  3. Scheen AJ: Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins): focus on drug-drug interactions. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2010 Sep;49(9):573-88. doi: 10.2165/11532980-000000000-00000. [PubMed:20690781 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
References
  1. Upreti VV, Boulton DW, Li L, Ching A, Su H, Lacreta FP, Patel CG: Effect of rifampicin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of saxagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;72(1):92-102. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03937.x. [PubMed:21651615 ]
  2. Patel CG, Kornhauser D, Vachharajani N, Komoroski B, Brenner E, Handschuh del Corral M, Li L, Boulton DW: Saxagliptin, a potent, selective inhibitor of DPP-4, does not alter the pharmacokinetics of three oral antidiabetic drugs (metformin, glyburide or pioglitazone) in healthy subjects. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Jul;13(7):604-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01381.x. [PubMed:21332626 ]
  3. Scheen AJ: Dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors (gliptins): focus on drug-drug interactions. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2010 Sep;49(9):573-88. doi: 10.2165/11532980-000000000-00000. [PubMed:20690781 ]
General function:
Involved in serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Cell surface glycoprotein receptor involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated T-cell activation. Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell coactivation, by binding at least ADA, CAV1, IGF2R, and PTPRC. Its binding to CAV1 and CARD11 induces T-cell proliferation and NF- kappa-B activation in a T-cell receptor/CD3-dependent manner. Its interaction with ADA also regulates lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion. In association with FAP is involved in the pericellular proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the migration and invasion of endothelial cells into the ECM. May be involved in the promotion of lymphatic endothelial cells adhesion, migration and tube formation. When overexpressed, enhanced cell proliferation, a process inhibited by GPC3. Acts also as a serine exopeptidase with a dipeptidyl peptidase activity that regulates various physiological processes by cleaving peptides in the circulation, including many chemokines, mitogenic growth factors, neuropeptides and peptide hormones. Removes N-terminal dipeptides sequentially from polypeptides having unsubstituted N-termini provided that the penultimate residue is proline
Gene Name:
DPP4
Uniprot ID:
P27487
Molecular weight:
88277.9
References
  1. Augeri DJ, Robl JA, Betebenner DA, Magnin DR, Khanna A, Robertson JG, Wang A, Simpkins LM, Taunk P, Huang Q, Han SP, Abboa-Offei B, Cap M, Xin L, Tao L, Tozzo E, Welzel GE, Egan DM, Marcinkeviciene J, Chang SY, Biller SA, Kirby MS, Parker RA, Hamann LG: Discovery and preclinical profile of Saxagliptin (BMS-477118): a highly potent, long-acting, orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J Med Chem. 2005 Jul 28;48(15):5025-37. [PubMed:16033281 ]