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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:33:43 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15643
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameArtemether
DescriptionArtemether is an antimalarial agent used to treat acute uncomplicated malaria. It is administered in combination with lumefantrine for improved efficacy. This combination therapy exerts its effects against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium spp. and may be used to treat infections caused by P. falciparum and unidentified Plasmodium species, including infections acquired in chloroquine-resistant areas.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(1R,4S,5R,8S,9R,10S,12R,13R)-10-Methoxy-1,5,9-trimethyl-11,14,15,16-tetraoxatetracyclo[10.3.1.0^{4,13}.0^{8,13}]hexadecaneChEBI
10-Methoxy-1,5,9-trimethyl-(1R,4S,5R,8S,9R,10S,12R,13R)-11,14,15,16-tetraoxatetracyclo[10.3.1.04,13.08,13]hexadecaneChEBI
ArtemeteroChEBI
ArtemetherumChEBI
Artemisininelactol methyl etherChEBI
beta-ArtemetherChEBI
beta-Dihydroartemisinin methyl etherChEBI
Dihydroartemisinin methyl etherChEBI
Methyl-dihydroartemisinineChEBI
b-ArtemetherGenerator
β-artemetherGenerator
b-Dihydroartemisinin methyl etherGenerator
β-dihydroartemisinin methyl etherGenerator
Chemical FormulaC16H26O5
Average Molecular Weight298.3746
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight298.178023942
IUPAC Name(1R,4S,5R,8S,9R,10S,12R,13R)-10-methoxy-1,5,9-trimethyl-11,14,15,16-tetraoxatetracyclo[10.3.1.0⁴,¹³.0⁸,¹³]hexadecane
Traditional Nameartemether
CAS Registry Number71963-77-4
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@@H](C)[C@]3([H])CC[C@@]4(C)OO[C@@]13[C@]([H])(O[C@H](OC)[C@@H]2C)O4
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C16H26O5/c1-9-5-6-12-10(2)13(17-4)18-14-16(12)11(9)7-8-15(3,19-14)20-21-16/h9-14H,5-8H2,1-4H3/t9-,10-,11+,12+,13+,14-,15-,16-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=SXYIRMFQILZOAM-HVNFFKDJSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as artemisinins. These are sesquiterpenoids originally isolated from the herb Artemisia annua. Their structure is based on artemisinin, a tetracyclic compound that contains a 1,2-dioxepane fused to an octahydrobenzopyran moiety. The internal peroxide bridge is believed to be a key to the mode of action of artemisinins.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassSesquiterpenoids
Direct ParentArtemisinins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Artemisinin skeleton
  • Oxepane
  • 1,2,4-trioxane
  • Oxane
  • Dialkyl peroxide
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Antimalarial Agents
  • Antimalarials
  • Antiprotozoal Agents
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point86 - 90 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4.57e-01 g/LNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.46 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.02ALOGPS
logP3.48ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.15 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity74.66 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability32.12 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Artemether Metabolism PathwaySMP00651Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB06697
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB06697
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB06697
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID62138
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkArtemether
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15643
Metagene LinkHMDB15643
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound68911
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID195280
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Haynes RK, Vonwiller SC: Extraction of artemisinin and artemisinic acid: preparation of artemether and new analogues. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Jun;88 Suppl 1:S23-6. [8053018 ]
  2. Makanga M, Krudsood S: The clinical efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine (Coartem). Malar J. 2009 Oct 12;8 Suppl 1:S5. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-S1-S5. [19818172 ]
  3. Mutabingwa TK, Adam I: Use of artemether-lumefantrine to treat malaria during pregnancy: what do we know and need to know? Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013 Feb;11(2):125-35. doi: 10.1586/eri.12.169. [23409819 ]
  4. Artemether and Lumefantrine (2010). AHFS Drug Information [Electronic versionb]. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  5. Artemether/Lumefantrine (2010). DrugPoints® System [Electronic version]. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  6. Novartis. Coartem (artemether/lumefantrine) tablets prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ; 2010 Feb.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
  2. Elsherbiny DA, Asimus SA, Karlsson MO, Ashton M, Simonsson US: A model based assessment of the CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 inductive properties by artemisinin antimalarials: implications for combination regimens. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2008 Apr;35(2):203-17. Epub 2008 Mar 19. [18350255 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Elsherbiny DA, Asimus SA, Karlsson MO, Ashton M, Simonsson US: A model based assessment of the CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 inductive properties by artemisinin antimalarials: implications for combination regimens. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2008 Apr;35(2):203-17. Epub 2008 Mar 19. [18350255 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065