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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:33:53 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB15669
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDrotaverine
DescriptionDrotaverine (INN, also known as drotaverin) is an antispasmodic drug, structurally related to papaverine. Drotaverine is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4, and has no anticholinergic effects. Drotaverine has been shown to possess dose-dependant analgesic effects in animal models. One small study has shown drotaverine to be eliminated mainly non-renally.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
DrotinKegg
DrotaverinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC24H31NO4
Average Molecular Weight397.5072
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight397.225308485
IUPAC Name(1Z)-1-[(3,4-diethoxyphenyl)methylidene]-6,7-diethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline
Traditional Namedrotaverine
CAS Registry Number985-12-6
SMILES
CCOC1=C(OCC)C=C(\C=C2/NCCC3=CC(OCC)=C(OCC)C=C23)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C24H31NO4/c1-5-26-21-10-9-17(14-22(21)27-6-2)13-20-19-16-24(29-8-4)23(28-7-3)15-18(19)11-12-25-20/h9-10,13-16,25H,5-8,11-12H2,1-4H3/b20-13-
InChI KeyInChIKey=OMFNSKIUKYOYRG-MOSHPQCFSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetrahydroisoquinolines. These are tetrahydrogenated isoquinoline derivatives.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTetrahydroisoquinolines
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentTetrahydroisoquinolines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tetrahydroisoquinoline
  • Phenol ether
  • Aralkylamine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Enamine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
BiofunctionNot Available
Application
  • Pharmaceutical
Cellular locations
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.002 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.35ALOGPS
logP4.19ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area48.95 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity117.99 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability46.99 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB06751
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB06751
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB06751
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID1361582
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDrotaverine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB15669
Metagene LinkHMDB15669
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound1712095
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID665387
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Bolaji OO, Onyeji CO, Ogundaini AO, Olugbade TA, Ogunbona FA: Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of drotaverine in humans. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jul-Sep;21(3):217-21. [8980918 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes.
Gene Name:
PDE4A
Uniprot ID:
P27815
Molecular weight:
98142.155
References
  1. Muravyov AV, Yakusevich VV, Chuchkanov FA, Maimistova AA, Bulaeva SV, Zaitsev LG: Hemorheological efficiency of drugs, targeting on intracellular phosphodiesterase activity: in vitro study. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2007;36(4):327-34. [17502703 ]
  2. Romics I, Molnar DL, Timberg G, Mrklic B, Jelakovic B, Koszegi G, Blasko G: The effect of drotaverine hydrochloride in acute colicky pain caused by renal and ureteric stones. BJU Int. 2003 Jul;92(1):92-6. [12823389 ]
  3. Pareek A, Chandurkar NB, Patil RT, Agrawal SN, Uday RB, Tambe SG: Efficacy and safety of aceclofenac and drotaverine fixed-dose combination in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized comparative study with aceclofenac. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010 Sep;152(1):86-90. Epub 2010 Jun 15. [20554370 ]
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. The isoform alpha-1C gives rise to L-type calcium currents. Long-lasting (L-type) calcium channels belong to the 'high-voltage activated' (HVA) group. They are blocked by dihydropyridines (DHP), phenylalkylamines, benzothiazepines, and by omega-agatoxin-IIIA (omega-Aga-IIIA). They are however insensitive to omega-conotoxin- GVIA (omega-CTx-GVIA) and omega-agatoxin-IVA (omega-Aga-IVA). Calcium channels containing the alpha-1C subunit play an important role in excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. The various isoforms display marked differences in the sensitivity to DHP compounds. Binding of calmodulin or CABP1 at the same regulatory sites results in an opposit effects on the channel function
Gene Name:
CACNA1C
Uniprot ID:
Q13936
Molecular weight:
248974.1
References
  1. Tomoskozi Z, Finance O, Aranyi P: Drotaverine interacts with the L-type Ca(2+) channel in pregnant rat uterine membranes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Aug 2;449(1-2):55-60. [12163106 ]
  2. Romics I, Molnar DL, Timberg G, Mrklic B, Jelakovic B, Koszegi G, Blasko G: The effect of drotaverine hydrochloride in acute colicky pain caused by renal and ureteric stones. BJU Int. 2003 Jul;92(1):92-6. [12823389 ]