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Record Information
Creation Date2012-09-06 21:02:37 UTC
Update Date2017-09-27 08:28:06 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB28816
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlutamyl-Cysteine
DescriptionGlutamyl-Cysteine is a dipeptide composed of glutamate and cysteine. It is an incomplete breakdown product of protein digestion or protein catabolism. Some dipeptides are known to have physiological or cell-signaling effects although most are simply short-lived intermediates on their way to specific amino acid degradation pathways following further proteolysis. This dipeptide has not yet been identified in human tissues or biofluids and so it is classified as an 'Expected' metabolite.
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC8H13N2O5S
Average Molecular Weight249.264
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight249.054517226
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILESNot Available
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified

Biological Location:

  Biofluid and excreta:


Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00ls-0290000000-3456b46828455d4e71d3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01b9-2960000000-225416960a5aaaef8a7eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00e9-9800000000-2b87faed5b9d340e3ee8View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Saliva
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
No entries found
Normal Concentrations
SalivaDetected and Quantified24.03 +/- 2.60 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID89701
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Zinellu A, Sotgia S, Usai MF, Chessa R, Deiana L, Carru C: Thiol redox status evaluation in red blood cells by capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence detection. Electrophoresis. 2005 May;26(10):1963-8. [PubMed:15812837 ]
  2. Wunschmann J, Krajewski M, Letzel T, Huber EM, Ehrmann A, Grill E, Lendzian KJ: Dissection of glutathione conjugate turnover in yeast. Phytochemistry. 2010 Jan;71(1):54-61. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.09.034. Epub 2009 Nov 10. [PubMed:19897216 ]
  3. Murata M, Bansho Y, Inoue S, Ito K, Ohnishi S, Midorikawa K, Kawanishi S: Requirement of glutathione and cysteine in guanine-specific oxidation of DNA by carcinogenic potassium bromate. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001 Jun;14(6):678-85. [PubMed:11409938 ]
  4. Vande Weghe JG, Ow DW: Accumulation of metal-binding peptides in fission yeast requires hmt2+. Mol Microbiol. 2001 Oct;42(1):29-36. [PubMed:11679064 ]
  5. Zhu YL, Pilon-Smits EA, Tarun AS, Weber SU, Jouanin L, Terry N: Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in Indian mustard is enhanced by overexpressing gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Plant Physiol. 1999 Dec;121(4):1169-78. [PubMed:10594104 ]
  6. Meuwly P, Thibault P, Schwan AL, Rauser WE: Three families of thiol peptides are induced by cadmium in maize. Plant J. 1995 Mar;7(3):391-400. [PubMed:7757112 ]
  7. Yen TY, Villa JA, DeWitt JG: Analysis of phytochelatin-cadmium complexes from plant tissue culture using nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and capillary liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 1999 Sep;34(9):930-41. [PubMed:10491589 ]
  8. Noble DR, Williams DL: Structure-reactivity studies of the Cu(2+)-catalyzed decomposition of four S-nitrosothiols based around the S-Nitrosocysteine/S-nitrosoglutathione structures. Nitric Oxide. 2000 Aug;4(4):392-8. [PubMed:10944424 ]
  9. Brautigam A, Schaumloffel D, Krauss GJ, Wesenberg D: Analytical approach for characterization of cadmium-induced thiol peptides--a case study using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2009 Nov;395(6):1737-47. doi: 10.1007/s00216-009-2921-7. Epub 2009 Jul 10. [PubMed:19590857 ]
  10. Wang W, Clarkson TW, Ballatori N: gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase and l-cysteine regulate methylmercury uptake by HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2000 Oct 1;168(1):72-8. [PubMed:11000102 ]
  11. Kataoka H, Takagi K, Makita M: Determination of glutathione and related aminothiols by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Biomed Chromatogr. 1995 Mar-Apr;9(2):85-9. [PubMed:7795391 ]
  12. Sherrill C, Fahey RC: Import and metabolism of glutathione by Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol. 1998 Mar;180(6):1454-9. [PubMed:9515913 ]
  13. Suto RK, Brasch NE, Anderson OP, Finke RG: Synthesis, characterization, solution stability, and X-ray crystal structure of the thiolatocobalamin gamma-glutamylcysteinylcobalamin, a dipeptide analogue of glutathionylcobalamin: insights into the enhanced Co-S bond stability of the natural product glutathionylcobalamin. Inorg Chem. 2001 Jun 4;40(12):2686-92. [PubMed:11375680 ]
  14. Chen WJ, Graminski GF, Armstrong RN: Dissection of the catalytic mechanism of isozyme 4-4 of glutathione S-transferase with alternative substrates. Biochemistry. 1988 Jan 26;27(2):647-54. [PubMed:3349053 ]
  15. Blum R, Meyer KC, Wunschmann J, Lendzian KJ, Grill E: Cytosolic action of phytochelatin synthase. Plant Physiol. 2010 May;153(1):159-69. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.149922. Epub 2010 Mar 19. [PubMed:20304971 ]
  16. Jez JM, Cahoon RE, Chen S: Arabidopsis thaliana glutamate-cysteine ligase: functional properties, kinetic mechanism, and regulation of activity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Aug 6;279(32):33463-70. Epub 2004 Jun 4. [PubMed:15180996 ]