Canmetcon
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00019
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5248
Name Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial
Synonyms
  1. PCB
  2. Pyruvic carboxylase
Gene Name PC
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in catalytic activity
Specific Function Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate.
Pathways
  • 2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency
  • Alanine Metabolism
  • Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
  • Citric Acid Cycle
  • Congenital lactic acidosis
  • Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency
  • Fumarase deficiency
  • gluconeogenesis
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Glutaminolysis and Cancer
  • Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1A (GSD1A) or Von Gierke Disease
  • Glycogenosis, Type IA. Von gierke disease
  • Glycogenosis, Type IB
  • Glycogenosis, Type IC
  • Lactic Acidemia
  • Leigh Syndrome
  • Mitochondrial complex II deficiency
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency 1 (PEPCK1)
  • Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2
  • Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I
  • Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency
  • Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)
  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E2)
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency
  • Pyruvate Metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • The oncogenic action of 2-hydroxyglutarate
  • The oncogenic action of D-2-hydroxyglutarate in Hydroxygluaricaciduria
  • The Oncogenic Action of Fumarate
  • The oncogenic action of L-2-hydroxyglutarate in Hydroxygluaricaciduria
  • The Oncogenic Action of Succinate
  • Transfer of Acetyl Groups into Mitochondria
  • Triosephosphate isomerase
  • Warburg Effect
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid + Carbonic acid → ADP + Phosphoric acid + Oxalacetic acid details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
pyruvate metabolic process
gluconeogenesis
oxaloacetate metabolic process
lipid metabolic process
Cellular Component
mitochondrial matrix
mitochondrial inner membrane
Component
cell part
intracellular part
cytoplasm
Function
binding
catalytic activity
nucleoside binding
purine nucleoside binding
adenyl nucleotide binding
adenyl ribonucleotide binding
atp binding
ligase activity
vitamin binding
biotin binding
ligase activity, forming carbon-carbon bonds
pyruvate carboxylase activity
Molecular Function
metal ion binding
ATP binding
biotin binding
biotin carboxylase activity
pyruvate carboxylase activity
DNA binding
Process
metabolic process
small molecule metabolic process
alcohol metabolic process
monosaccharide metabolic process
hexose metabolic process
glucose metabolic process
gluconeogenesis
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion matrix
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 11
Locus 11q13.4-q13.5
SNPs PC
Gene Sequence
>3537 bp
ATGCTGAAGTTCCGAACAGTCCATGGGGGCCTGAGGCTCCTGGGAATCCGCCGAACCTCC
ACCGCCCCCGCTGCCTCCCCAAATGTCCGGCGCCTGGAGTATAAGCCCATCAAGAAAGTC
ATGGTGGCCAACAGAGGTGAGATTGCCATCCGTGTGTTCCGGGCCTGCACGGAGCTGGGC
ATCCGCACCGTAGCCATCTACTCTGAGCAGGACACGGGCCAGATGCACCGGCAGAAAGCA
GATGAAGCCTATCTCATCGGCCGCGGCCTGGCCCCCGTGCAGGCCTACCTGCACATCCCA
GACATCATCAAGGTGGCCAAGGAGAACAACGTAGATGCAGTGCACCCTGGCTACGGGTTC
CTCTCTGAGCGAGCGGACTTCGCCCAGGCCTGCCAGGATGCAGGGGTCCGGTTTATTGGG
CCAAGCCCAGAAGTGGTCCGCAAGATGGGAGACAAGGTGGAGGCCCGGGCCATCGCCATT
GCTGCGGGTGTTCCCGTTGTCCCTGGCACAGATGCCCCCATCACGTCCCTGCATGAGGCC
CACGAGTTCTCCAACACCTACGGCTTCCCCATCATCTTCAAGGCGGCCTATGGGGGTGGA
GGGCGTGGCATGAGGGTGGTGCACAGCTACGAGGAGCTGGAGGAGAATTACACCCGGGCC
TACTCAGAGGCTCTGGCCGCCTTTGGGAATGGGGCGCTGTTTGTGGAGAAGTTCATCGAG
AAGCCACGGCACATCGAGGTGCAGATCTTGGGGGACCAGTATGGGAACATCCTGCACCTG
TACGAGCGAGACTGCTCCATCCAGCGGCGGCACCAGAAGGTGGTCGAGATTGCCCCCGCC
GCCCACCTGGACCCGCAGCTTCGGACTCGGCTCACCAGCGACTCTGTGAAACTCGCTAAA
CAGGTGGGCTACGAGAACGCAGGCACCGTGGAGTTCCTGGTGGACAGGCACGGCAAGCAC
TACTTCATCGAGGTCAACTCCCGCCTGCAGGTGGAGCACACGGTCACAGAGGAGATCACC
GACGTAGACCTGGTCCATGCTCAGATCCACGTGGCTGAGGGCAGGAGCCTACCCGACCTG
GGCCTGCGGCAGGAGAACATCCGCATCAACGGGTGTGCCATCCAGTGCCGGGTCACCACC
GAGGACCCCGCGCGCAGCTTCCAGCCGGACACCGGCCGCATTGAGGTGTTCCGGAGCGGA
GAGGGCATGGGCATCCGCCTGGATAATGCTTCCGCCTTCCAAGGAGCCGTCATCTCGCCC
CACTACGACTCCCTGCTGGTCAAAGTCATTGCCCACGGCAAAGACCACCCCACGGCCGCC
ACCAAGATGAGCAGGGCCCTTGCGGAGTTCCGCGTCCGAGGTGTGAAGACCAACATCGCC
TTCCTGCAGAATGTGCTCAACAACCAGCAGTTCCTGGCAGGCACTGTGGACACCCAGTTC
ATCGACGAGAACCCAGAGCTGTTCCAGCTGCGGCCTGCACAGAACCGGGCCCAAAAGCTG
TTGCACTACCTCGGCCATGTCATGGTAAACGGTCCAACCACCCCGATTCCCGTCAAGGCC
AGCCCCAGCCCCACGGACCCCGTTGTCCCTGCAGTGCCCATAGGCCCGCCCCCGGCTGGT
TTCAGAGACATCCTGCTGCGAGAGGGGCCTGAGGGCTTTGCTCGAGCTGTGCGGAACCAC
CCGGGGCTGCTGCTGATGGACACGACCTTCAGGGACGCCCACCAGTCACTGCTGGCCACT
CGTGTGCGCACCCACGATCTCAAAAAGATCGCCCCCTATGTTGCCCACAACTTCAGCAAG
CTCTTCAGCATGGAGAACTGGGGAGGAGCCACGTTTGACGTCGCCATGCGCTTCCTGTAT
GAGTGCCCCTGGCGGCGGCTGCAGGAGCTCCGGGAGCTCATCCCCAACATCCCTTTCCAG
ATGCTGCTGCGGGGGGCCAATGCTGTGGGCTACACCAACTACCCAGACAACGTGGTCTTC
AAGTTCTGTGAAGTGGCCAAAGAGAATGGCATGGATGTCTTCCGTGTGTTTGACTCCCTC
AACTACTTGCCCAACATGCTGCTGGGCATGGAGGCGGCAGGAAGTGCCGGAGGCGTGGTG
GAGGCTGCCATCTCATACACGGGCGACGTGGCCGACCCCAGCCGCACCAAGTACTCACTG
CAGTACTACATGGGCTTGGCCGAAGAGCTGGTGCGAGCTGGCACCCACATCCTGTGCATC
AAGGACATGGCCGGGCTGCTGAAGCCCACGGCCTGCACCATGCTGGTCAGCTCCCTCCGG
GACCGCTTCCCCGACCTCCCACTGCACATCCACACCCACGACACGTCAGGGGCAGGCGTG
GCAGCCATGCTGGCCTGTGCCCAGGCTGGAGCTGATGTGGTGGATGTGGCAGCTGATTCC
ATGTCTGGGATGACTTCACAGCCCAGCATGGGGGCCCTGGTGGCCTGTACCAGAGGGACT
CCCCTGGACACAGAGGTGCCCATGGAGCGCGTGTTTGACTACAGTGAGTACTGGGAGGGG
GCTCGGGGACTGTACGCGGCCTTCGACTGCACGGCCACCATGAAGTCTGGCAACTCGGAC
GTGTATGAAAATGAGATCCCAGGGGGCCAGTACACCAACCTGCACTTCCAGGCCCACAGC
ATGGGGCTTGGCTCCAAGTTCAAGGAGGTCAAGAAGGCCTATGTGGAGGCCAACCAGATG
CTGGGCGATCTCATCAAGGTGACGCCCTCCTCCAAGATCGTGGGGGACCTGGCCCAGTTT
ATGGTGCAGAATGGATTGAGCCGGGCAGAGGCCGAAGCTCAGGCGGAAGAGCTGTCCTTT
CCCCGCTCCGTGGTGGAGTTCCTGCAGGGCTACATCGGTGTCCCCCATGGGGGGTTCCCC
GAACCCTTTCGCTCTAAGGTACTGAAGGACCTGCCAAGGGTGGAGGGGCGGCCTGGAGCC
TCCCTCCCTCCCCTGGATCTGCAGGCACTGGAGAAGGAGCTGGTAGACCGGCATGGGGAG
GAGGTGACGCCGGAAGATGTGCTCTCAGCAGCTATGTACCCCGATGTGTTTGCCCACTTC
AAGGACTTCACTGCCACCTTTGGCCCCCTGGATAGCCTGAATACTCGCCTCTTCCTGCAG
GGACCCAAGATCGCAGAGGAGTTTGAGGTGGAGCTGGAGCGGGGCAAGACGCTGCACATC
AAAGCCCTGGCCGTGAGCGACCTGAACCGGGCCGGCCAGAGGCAGGTCTTCTTTGAGCTC
AATGGGCAGCTGCGGTCCATCTTGGTCAAGGACACCCAGGCCATGAAGGAGATGCACTTC
CACCCCAAGGCCCTAAAGGACGTGAAGGGCCAGATCGGGGCGCCCATGCCTGGGAAGGTG
ATAGACATCAAAGTGGTGGCAGGGGCCAAGGTGGCCAAGGGCCAGCCCCTGTGTGTGCTC
AGTGCCATGAAGATGGAGACTGTGGTGACCTCACCCATGGAGGGTACTGTCCGCAAGGTT
CATGTGACCAAGGACATGACACTGGAAGGTGACGACCTCATCCTGGAGATCGAGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 1178
Molecular Weight 129632.565
Theoretical pI 6.841
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial
MLKFRTVHGGLRLLGIRRTSTAPAASPNVRRLEYKPIKKVMVANRGEIAIRVFRACTELG
IRTVAIYSEQDTGQMHRQKADEAYLIGRGLAPVQAYLHIPDIIKVAKENNVDAVHPGYGF
LSERADFAQACQDAGVRFIGPSPEVVRKMGDKVEARAIAIAAGVPVVPGTDAPITSLHEA
HEFSNTYGFPIIFKAAYGGGGRGMRVVHSYEELEENYTRAYSEALAAFGNGALFVEKFIE
KPRHIEVQILGDQYGNILHLYERDCSIQRRHQKVVEIAPAAHLDPQLRTRLTSDSVKLAK
QVGYENAGTVEFLVDRHGKHYFIEVNSRLQVEHTVTEEITDVDLVHAQIHVAEGRSLPDL
GLRQENIRINGCAIQCRVTTEDPARSFQPDTGRIEVFRSGEGMGIRLDNASAFQGAVISP
HYDSLLVKVIAHGKDHPTAATKMSRALAEFRVRGVKTNIAFLQNVLNNQQFLAGTVDTQF
IDENPELFQLRPAQNRAQKLLHYLGHVMVNGPTTPIPVKASPSPTDPVVPAVPIGPPPAG
FRDILLREGPEGFARAVRNHPGLLLMDTTFRDAHQSLLATRVRTHDLKKIAPYVAHNFSK
LFSMENWGGATFDVAMRFLYECPWRRLQELRELIPNIPFQMLLRGANAVGYTNYPDNVVF
KFCEVAKENGMDVFRVFDSLNYLPNMLLGMEAAGSAGGVVEAAISYTGDVADPSRTKYSL
QYYMGLAEELVRAGTHILCIKDMAGLLKPTACTMLVSSLRDRFPDLPLHIHTHDTSGAGV
AAMLACAQAGADVVDVAADSMSGMTSQPSMGALVACTRGTPLDTEVPMERVFDYSEYWEG
ARGLYAAFDCTATMKSGNSDVYENEIPGGQYTNLHFQAHSMGLGSKFKEVKKAYVEANQM
LGDLIKVTPSSKIVGDLAQFMVQNGLSRAEAEAQAEELSFPRSVVEFLQGYIGVPHGGFP
EPFRSKVLKDLPRVEGRPGASLPPLDLQALEKELVDRHGEEVTPEDVLSAAMYPDVFAHF
KDFTATFGPLDSLNTRLFLQGPKIAEEFEVELERGKTLHIKALAVSDLNRAGQRQVFFEL
NGQLRSILVKDTQAMKEMHFHPKALKDVKGQIGAPMPGKVIDIKVVAGAKVAKGQPLCVL
SAMKMETVVTSPMEGTVRKVHVTKDMTLEGDDLILEIE
GenBank ID Protein 458236
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P11498
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PYC_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID U04641
GeneCard ID PC
GenAtlas ID PC
HGNC ID HGNC:8636
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  3. Yu LR, Zhu Z, Chan KC, Issaq HJ, Dimitrov DS, Veenstra TD: Improved titanium dioxide enrichment of phosphopeptides from HeLa cells and high confident phosphopeptide identification by cross-validation of MS/MS and MS/MS/MS spectra. J Proteome Res. 2007 Nov;6(11):4150-62. Epub 2007 Oct 9. [PubMed:17924679 ]
  4. Wexler ID, Du Y, Lisgaris MV, Mandal SK, Freytag SO, Yang BS, Liu TC, Kwon M, Patel MS, Kerr DS: Primary amino acid sequence and structure of human pyruvate carboxylase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Oct 21;1227(1-2):46-52. [PubMed:7918683 ]
  5. MacKay N, Rigat B, Douglas C, Chen HS, Robinson BH: cDNA cloning of human kidney pyruvate carboxylase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Jul 29;202(2):1009-14. [PubMed:8048912 ]
  6. Lamhonwah AM, Quan F, Gravel RA: Sequence homology around the biotin-binding site of human propionyl-CoA carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1987 May 1;254(2):631-6. [PubMed:3555348 ]
  7. Freytag SO, Collier KJ: Molecular cloning of a cDNA for human pyruvate carboxylase. Structural relationship to other biotin-containing carboxylases and regulation of mRNA content in differentiating preadipocytes. J Biol Chem. 1984 Oct 25;259(20):12831-7. [PubMed:6548474 ]
  8. Xiang S, Tong L: Crystal structures of human and Staphylococcus aureus pyruvate carboxylase and molecular insights into the carboxyltransfer reaction. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008 Mar;15(3):295-302. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.1393. Epub 2008 Feb 24. [PubMed:18297087 ]
  9. Carbone MA, MacKay N, Ling M, Cole DE, Douglas C, Rigat B, Feigenbaum A, Clarke JT, Haworth JC, Greenberg CR, Seargeant L, Robinson BH: Amerindian pyruvate carboxylase deficiency is associated with two distinct missense mutations. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Jun;62(6):1312-9. [PubMed:9585612 ]
  10. Wexler ID, Kerr DS, Du Y, Kaung MM, Stephenson W, Lusk MM, Wappner RS, Higgins JJ: Molecular characterization of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency in two consanguineous families. Pediatr Res. 1998 May;43(5):579-84. [PubMed:9585002 ]
  11. Monnot S, Serre V, Chadefaux-Vekemans B, Aupetit J, Romano S, De Lonlay P, Rival JM, Munnich A, Steffann J, Bonnefont JP: Structural insights on pathogenic effects of novel mutations causing pyruvate carboxylase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 2009 May;30(5):734-40. doi: 10.1002/humu.20908. [PubMed:19306334 ]