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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00029
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5258
  • HMDBP04672
Name Diamine acetyltransferase 1
Synonyms
  1. Polyamine N-acetyltransferase 1
  2. Putrescine acetyltransferase
  3. SSAT
  4. SSAT-1
  5. Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1
Gene Name SAT1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1)-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine (forming N(1)- and N(8)-acetylspermidine), spermine, N(1)-acetylspermidine and N(8)-acetylspermidine.
Pathways
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • putrescine degradation
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + an alkane-alpha,omega-diamine → Coenzyme A + an N-acetyldiamine details
Acetyl-CoA + Putrescine → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylputrescine details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
regulation of cell proliferation
polyamine biosynthetic process
angiogenesis
putrescine catabolic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
Function
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
acyltransferase activity
acetyltransferase activity
n-acetyltransferase activity
Molecular Function
diamine N-acetyltransferase activity
spermidine binding
Process
metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location X
Locus Xp22.1
SNPs SAT1
Gene Sequence
>516 bp
ATGGCTAAATTCGTGATCCGCCCAGCCACTGCCGCCGACTGCAGTGACATACTGCGGCTG
ATCAAGGAGCTGGCTAAATATGAATACATGGAAGAACAAGTAATCTTAACTGAAAAAGAT
CTGCTAGAAGATGGTTTTGGAGAGCACCCCTTTTACCACTGCCTGGTTGCAGAAGTGCCG
AAAGAGCACTGGACTCCGGAAGGACACAGCATTGTTGGTTTTGCCATGTACTATTTTACC
TATGACCCGTGGATTGGCAAGTTATTGTATCTTGAGGACTTCTTCGTGATGAGTGATTAT
AGAGGCTTTGGCATAGGATCAGAAATTCTGAAGAATCTAAGCCAGGTTGCAATGAGGTGT
CGCTGCAGCAGCATGCACTTCTTGGTAGCAGAATGGAATGAACCATCCATCAACTTCTAT
AAAAGAAGAGGTGCTTCTGATCTGTCCAGTGAAGAGGGTTGGAGACTGTTCAAGATCGAC
AAGGAGTACTTGCTAAAAATGGCAACAGAGGAGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 171
Molecular Weight 20023.8
Theoretical pI 5.152
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Diamine acetyltransferase 1
MAKFVIRPATAADCSDILRLIKELAKYEYMEEQVILTEKDLLEDGFGEHPFYHCLVAEVP
KEHWTPEGHSIVGFAMYYFTYDPWIGKLLYLEDFFVMSDYRGFGIGSEILKNLSQVAMRC
RCSSMHFLVAEWNEPSINFYKRRGASDLSSEEGWRLFKIDKEYLLKMATEE
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P21673
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name SAT1_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M77693
GeneCard ID SAT1
GenAtlas ID SAT1
HGNC ID HGNC:10540
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  3. Casero RA Jr, Celano P, Ervin SJ, Applegren NB, Wiest L, Pegg AE: Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone that codes for human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jan 15;266(2):810-4. [PubMed:1985966 ]
  4. Xiao L, Celano P, Mank AR, Pegg AE, Casero RA Jr: Characterization of a full-length cDNA which codes for the human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Aug 30;179(1):407-15. [PubMed:1652956 ]
  5. Xiao L, Celano P, Mank AR, Griffin C, Jabs EW, Hawkins AL, Casero RA Jr: Structure of the human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase gene (exon/intron gene organization and localization to Xp22.1). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992 Sep 30;187(3):1493-502. [PubMed:1417826 ]
  6. Xiao L, Casero RA Jr: Differential transcription of the human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) gene in human lung carcinoma cells. Biochem J. 1996 Jan 15;313 ( Pt 2):691-6. [PubMed:8573111 ]
  7. Casero RA Jr, Celano P, Ervin SJ, Wiest L, Pegg AE: High specific induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase in a human large cell lung carcinoma. Biochem J. 1990 Sep 15;270(3):615-20. [PubMed:2241897 ]
  8. Bewley MC, Graziano V, Jiang J, Matz E, Studier FW, Pegg AE, Coleman CS, Flanagan JM: Structures of wild-type and mutant human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase, a potential therapeutic drug target. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 14;103(7):2063-8. Epub 2006 Feb 2. [PubMed:16455797 ]
  9. Hegde SS, Chandler J, Vetting MW, Yu M, Blanchard JS: Mechanistic and structural analysis of human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. Biochemistry. 2007 Jun 19;46(24):7187-95. Epub 2007 May 22. [PubMed:17516632 ]
  10. Zhu YQ, Zhu DY, Yin L, Zhang Y, Vonrhein C, Wang DC: Crystal structure of human spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (hSSAT): the first structure of a new sequence family of transferase homologous superfamily. Proteins. 2006 Jun 1;63(4):1127-31. [PubMed:16544326 ]
  11. Oosterwijk JC, Richard G, van der Wielen MJ, van de Vosse E, Harth W, Sandkuijl LA, Bakker E, van Ommen GJ: Molecular genetic analysis of two families with keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans: refinement of gene localization and evidence for genetic heterogeneity. Hum Genet. 1997 Oct;100(5-6):520-4. [PubMed:9341865 ]
  12. Gimelli G, Giglio S, Zuffardi O, Alhonen L, Suppola S, Cusano R, Lo Nigro C, Gatti R, Ravazzolo R, Seri M: Gene dosage of the spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase ( SSAT) gene with putrescine accumulation in a patient with a Xp21.1p22.12 duplication and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (KFSD). Hum Genet. 2002 Sep;111(3):235-41. Epub 2002 Aug 1. [PubMed:12215835 ]