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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00096
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5328
  • HMDBP04891
Name Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme
Synonyms
  1. AP-TNAP
  2. Alkaline phosphatase liver/bone/kidney isozyme
  3. TNSALP
Gene Name ALPL
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in catalytic activity
Specific Function This isozyme may play a role in skeletal mineralization.
Pathways
  • Folate biosynthesis
  • Hypophosphatasia
  • Vitamin B6 Metabolism
Reactions
A phosphate monoester + Water → an alcohol + Phosphoric acid details
4-Nitrophenyl phosphate + Water → 4-Nitrophenol + Phosphoric acid details
Dihydroneopterin triphosphate + Water → 7,8-Dihydroneopterin + Phosphoric acid details
GO Classification
Biological Process
response to lipopolysaccharide
cellular response to organic cyclic compound
response to glucocorticoid stimulus
response to vitamin D
skeletal system development
response to antibiotic
cementum mineralization
developmental process involved in reproduction
Cellular Component
anchored to membrane
plasma membrane
extracellular space
integral to membrane
Function
hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
phosphoric ester hydrolase activity
phosphatase activity
Molecular Function
metal ion binding
pyrophosphatase activity
alkaline phosphatase activity
Process
metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cell membrane
  2. Lipid-anchor
  3. GPI-anchor
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 1
Locus 1p36.12
SNPs ALPL
Gene Sequence
>1575 bp
ATGATTTCACCATTCTTAGTACTGGCCATTGGCACCTGCCTTACTAACTCCTTAGTGCCA
GAGAAAGAGAAAGACCCCAAGTACTGGCGAGACCAAGCGCAAGAGACACTGAAATATGCC
CTGGAGCTTCAGAAGCTCAACACCAACGTGGCTAAGAATGTCATCATGTTCCTGGGAGAT
GGGATGGGTGTCTCCACAGTGACGGCTGCCCGCATCCTCAAGGGTCAGCTCCACCACAAC
CCTGGGGAGGAGACCAGGCTGGAGATGGACAAGTTCCCCTTCGTGGCCCTCTCCAAGACG
TACAACACCAAAGCCCAGGTCCCTGACAGCGCCGGCACCGCCACCGCCTACCTGTGTGGG
GTGAAGGCCAATGAGGGCACCGTGGGGGTAAGCGCAGCCACTGAGCGTTCCCGGTGCAAC
ACCACCCAGGGGAACGAGGTCACCTCCATCCTGCGCTGGGCCAAGGACGCTGGGAAATCT
GTGGGCATTGTGACCACCACGAGAGTGAACCATGCCACCCCCAGCGCCGCCTACGCCCAC
TCGGCTGACCGGGACTGGTACTCAGACAACGAGATGCCCCCTGAGGCCTTGAGCCAGGGC
TGTAAGGACATCGCCTACCAGCTCATGCATAACATCAGGGACATTGACGTGATCATGGGG
GGTGGCCGGAAATACATGTACCCCAAGAATAAAACTGATGTGGAGTATGAGAGTGACGAG
AAAGCCAGGGGCACGAGGCTGGACGGCCTGGACCTCGTTGACACCTGGAAGAGCTTCAAA
CCGAGACACAAGCACTCCCACTTCATCTGGAACCGCACGGAACTCCTGACCCTTGACCCC
CACAATGTGGACTACCTATTGGGTCTCTTCGAGCCGGGGGACATGCAGTACGAGCTGAAC
AGGAACAACGTGACGGACCCGTCACTCTCCGAGATGGTGGTGGTGGCCATCCAGATCCTG
CGGAAGAACCCCAAAGGCTTCTTCTTGCTGGTGGAAGGAGGCAGAATTGACCACGGGCAC
CATGAAGGAAAAGCCAAGCAGGCCCTGCATGAGGCGGTGGAGATGGACCGGGCCATCGGG
CAGGCAGGCAGCTTGACCTCCTCGGAAGACACTCTGACCGTGGTCACTGCGGACCATTCC
CACGTCTTCACATTTGGTGGATACACCCCCCGTGGCAACTCTATCTTTGGTCTGGCCCCC
ATGCTGAGTGACACAGACAAGAAGCCCTTCACTGCCATCCTGTATGGCAATGGGCCTGGC
TACAAGGTGGTGGGCGGTGAACGAGAGAATGTCTCCATGGTGGACTATGCTCACAACAAC
TACCAGGCGCAGTCTGCTGTGCCCCTGCGCCACGAGACCCACGGCGGGGAGGACGTGGCC
GTCTTCTCCAAGGGCCCCATGGCGCACCTGCTGCACGGCGTCCACGAGCAGAACTACGTC
CCCCACGTGATGGCGTATGCAGCCTGCATCGGGGCCAACCTCGGCCACTGTGCTCCTGCC
AGCTCGGCAGGCAGCCTTGCTGCAGGCCCCCTGCTGCTCGCGCTGGCCCTCTACCCCCTG
AGCGTCCTGTTCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 524
Molecular Weight 57304.435
Theoretical pI 6.672
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme
MISPFLVLAIGTCLTNSLVPEKEKDPKYWRDQAQETLKYALELQKLNTNVAKNVIMFLGD
GMGVSTVTAARILKGQLHHNPGEETRLEMDKFPFVALSKTYNTNAQVPDSAGTATAYLCG
VKANEGTVGVSAATERSRCNTTQGNEVTSILRWAKDAGKSVGIVTTTRVNHATPSAAYAH
SADRDWYSDNEMPPEALSQGCKDIAYQLMHNIRDIDVIMGGGRKYMYPKNKTDVEYESDE
KARGTRLDGLDLVDTWKSFKPRYKHSHFIWNRTELLTLDPHNVDYLLGLFEPGDMQYELN
RNNVTDPSLSEMVVVAIQILRKNPKGFFLLVEGGRIDHGHHEGKAKQALHEAVEMDRAIG
QAGSLTSSEDTLTVVTADHSHVFTFGGYTPRGNSIFGLAPMLSDTDKKPFTAILYGNGPG
YKVVGGERENVSMVDYAHNNYQAQSAVPLRHETHGGEDVAVFSKGPMAHLLHGVHEQNYV
PHVMAYAACIGANLGHCAPASSAGSLAAGPLLLALALYPLSVLF
GenBank ID Protein 28738
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P05186
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PPBT_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID X14174
GeneCard ID ALPL
GenAtlas ID ALPL
HGNC ID HGNC:438
References
General References
  1. Chen R, Jiang X, Sun D, Han G, Wang F, Ye M, Wang L, Zou H: Glycoproteomics analysis of human liver tissue by combination of multiple enzyme digestion and hydrazide chemistry. J Proteome Res. 2009 Feb;8(2):651-61. doi: 10.1021/pr8008012. [PubMed:19159218 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, Kaul R, Swarbreck D, Dunham A, Scott CE, Howe KL, Woodfine K, Spencer CC, Jones MC, Gillson C, Searle S, Zhou Y, Kokocinski F, McDonald L, Evans R, Phillips K, Atkinson A, Cooper R, Jones C, Hall RE, Andrews TD, Lloyd C, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Anderson F, Andrew RW, Ashwell RI, Aubin K, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Beasley H, Bethel G, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown JY, Brown AJ, Buckley D, Burton J, Bye J, Carder C, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee C, Cobley V, Collier RE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Davies J, Deadman R, Dunn M, Earthrowl M, Ellington AG, Errington H, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gay L, Ghori MR, Gibson R, Gilby LM, Gillett W, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Hammond S, Harrison ES, Hart E, Haugen E, Heath PD, Holmes S, Holt K, Howden PJ, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Hunter G, Isherwood J, James R, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy A, Kay M, Kershaw JK, Kibukawa M, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights AJ, Lad H, Laird G, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, Lush MJ, Lyne R, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Matthews NS, McLaren S, Milne S, Mistry S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, O'Dell CN, Oliver K, Palmeiri A, Palmer SA, Parker A, Patel D, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phelps K, Phillimore BJ, Plumb R, Rajan J, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward C, Subramanian S, Sycamore N, Tracey A, Tromans A, Van Helmond Z, Wall M, Wallis JM, White S, Whitehead SL, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams H, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wu Z, Coulson A, Vaudin M, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Dunham I, Carter NP, McVean G, Ross MT, Harrow J, Olson MV, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR, Banerjee R, Bryant SP, Burford DC, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Dhami P, Dovey O, Faulkner LM, Gribble SM, Langford CF, Pandian RD, Porter KM, Prigmore E: The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Nature. 2006 May 18;441(7091):315-21. [PubMed:16710414 ]
  4. Nishihara Y, Hayashi Y, Adachi T, Koyama I, Stigbrand T, Hirano K: Chemical nature of intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase in human kidney. Clin Chem. 1992 Dec;38(12):2539-42. [PubMed:1458595 ]
  5. Weiss MJ, Henthorn PS, Lafferty MA, Slaughter C, Raducha M, Harris H: Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a human liver/bone/kidney-type alkaline phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Oct;83(19):7182-6. [PubMed:3532105 ]
  6. Weiss MJ, Ray K, Henthorn PS, Lamb B, Kadesch T, Harris H: Structure of the human liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase gene. J Biol Chem. 1988 Aug 25;263(24):12002-10. [PubMed:3165380 ]
  7. Kishi F, Matsuura S, Kajii T: Nucleotide sequence of the human liver-type alkaline phosphatase cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Mar 11;17(5):2129. [PubMed:2928120 ]
  8. Sugimoto N, Iwamoto S, Hoshino Y, Kajii E: A novel missense mutation of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene detected in a patient with hypophosphatasia. J Hum Genet. 1998;43(3):160-4. [PubMed:9747027 ]
  9. Garattini E, Hua JC, Pan YC, Udenfriend S: Human liver alkaline phosphatase, purification and partial sequencing: homology with the placental isozyme. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1986 Mar;245(2):331-7. [PubMed:3954357 ]
  10. Elortza F, Nuhse TS, Foster LJ, Stensballe A, Peck SC, Jensen ON: Proteomic analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2003 Dec;2(12):1261-70. Epub 2003 Sep 29. [PubMed:14517339 ]
  11. Elortza F, Mohammed S, Bunkenborg J, Foster LJ, Nuhse TS, Brodbeck U, Peck SC, Jensen ON: Modification-specific proteomics of plasma membrane proteins: identification and characterization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins released upon phospholipase D treatment. J Proteome Res. 2006 Apr;5(4):935-43. [PubMed:16602701 ]
  12. Weiss MJ, Cole DE, Ray K, Whyte MP, Lafferty MA, Mulivor RA, Harris H: A missense mutation in the human liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase gene causing a lethal form of hypophosphatasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Oct;85(20):7666-9. [PubMed:3174660 ]
  13. Henthorn PS, Raducha M, Fedde KN, Lafferty MA, Whyte MP: Different missense mutations at the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene locus in autosomal recessively inherited forms of mild and severe hypophosphatasia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Oct 15;89(20):9924-8. [PubMed:1409720 ]
  14. Greenberg CR, Taylor CL, Haworth JC, Seargeant LE, Philipps S, Triggs-Raine B, Chodirker BN: A homoallelic Gly317-->Asp mutation in ALPL causes the perinatal (lethal) form of hypophosphatasia in Canadian mennonites. Genomics. 1993 Jul;17(1):215-7. [PubMed:8406453 ]
  15. Orimo H, Hayashi Z, Watanabe A, Hirayama T, Hirayama T, Shimada T: Novel missense and frameshift mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene in a Japanese patient with hypophosphatasia. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Sep;3(9):1683-4. [PubMed:7833929 ]
  16. Ozono K, Yamagata M, Michigami T, Nakajima S, Sakai N, Cai G, Satomura K, Yasui N, Okada S, Nakayama M: Identification of novel missense mutations (Phe310Leu and Gly439Arg) in a neonatal case of hypophosphatasia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Dec;81(12):4458-61. [PubMed:8954059 ]
  17. Mornet E, Taillandier A, Peyramaure S, Kaper F, Muller F, Brenner R, Bussiere P, Freisinger P, Godard J, Le Merrer M, Oury JF, Plauchu H, Puddu R, Rival JM, Superti-Furga A, Touraine RL, Serre JL, Simon-Bouy B: Identification of fifteen novel mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene in European patients with severe hypophosphatasia. Eur J Hum Genet. 1998 Jul-Aug;6(4):308-14. [PubMed:9781036 ]
  18. Goseki-Sone M, Orimo H, Iimura T, Takagi Y, Watanabe H, Taketa K, Sato S, Mayanagi H, Shimada T, Oida S: Hypophosphatasia: identification of five novel missense mutations (G507A, G705A, A748G, T1155C, G1320A) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene among Japanese patients. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S263-7. [PubMed:9452105 ]
  19. Zurutuza L, Muller F, Gibrat JF, Taillandier A, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Mornet E: Correlations of genotype and phenotype in hypophosphatasia. Hum Mol Genet. 1999 Jun;8(6):1039-46. [PubMed:10332035 ]
  20. Taillandier A, Zurutuza L, Muller F, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Bird L, Brenner R, Boute O, Cousin J, Gaillard D, Heidemann PH, Steinmann B, Wallot M, Mornet E: Characterization of eleven novel mutations (M45L, R119H, 544delG, G145V, H154Y, C184Y, D289V, 862+5A, 1172delC, R411X, E459K) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene in patients with severe hypophosphatasia. Mutations in brief no. 217. Online. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(2):171-2. [PubMed:10094560 ]
  21. Mochizuki H, Saito M, Michigami T, Ohashi H, Koda N, Yamaguchi S, Ozono K: Severe hypercalcaemia and respiratory insufficiency associated with infantile hypophosphatasia caused by two novel mutations of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene. Eur J Pediatr. 2000 May;159(5):375-9. [PubMed:10834525 ]
  22. Taillandier A, Cozien E, Muller F, Merrien Y, Bonnin E, Fribourg C, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Bieth E, Brenner R, Cordier MP, De Bie S, Fellmann F, Freisinger P, Hesse V, Hennekam RC, Josifova D, Kerzin-Storrar L, Leporrier N, Zabot MT, Mornet E: Fifteen new mutations (-195C>T, L-12X, 298-2A>G, T117N, A159T, R229S, 997+2T>A, E274X, A331T, H364R, D389G, 1256delC, R433H, N461I, C472S) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene in patients with hypophosphatasia. Hum Mutat. 2000 Mar;15(3):293. [PubMed:10679946 ]
  23. Muller HL, Yamazaki M, Michigami T, Kageyama T, Schonau E, Schneider P, Ozono K: Asp361Val Mutant of alkaline phosphatase found in patients with dominantly inherited hypophosphatasia inhibits the activity of the wild-type enzyme. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Feb;85(2):743-7. [PubMed:10690885 ]
  24. Sergi C, Mornet E, Troeger J, Voigtlaender T: Perinatal hypophosphatasia: radiology, pathology and molecular biology studies in a family harboring a splicing mutation (648+1A) and a novel missense mutation (N400S) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene. Am J Med Genet. 2001 Oct 15;103(3):235-40. [PubMed:11745997 ]
  25. Lia-Baldini AS, Muller F, Taillandier A, Gibrat JF, Mouchard M, Robin B, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Aylsworth AS, Bieth E, Delanote S, Freisinger P, Hu JC, Krohn HP, Nunes ME, Mornet E: A molecular approach to dominance in hypophosphatasia. Hum Genet. 2001 Jul;109(1):99-108. [PubMed:11479741 ]
  26. Taillandier A, Lia-Baldini AS, Mouchard M, Robin B, Muller F, Simon-Bouy B, Serre JL, Bera-Louville A, Bonduelle M, Eckhardt J, Gaillard D, Myhre AG, Kortge-Jung S, Larget-Piet L, Malou E, Sillence D, Temple IK, Viot G, Mornet E: Twelve novel mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPL) in patients with various forms of hypophosphatasia. Hum Mutat. 2001;18(1):83-4. [PubMed:11438998 ]
  27. Orimo H, Girschick HJ, Goseki-Sone M, Ito M, Oda K, Shimada T: Mutational analysis and functional correlation with phenotype in German patients with childhood-type hypophosphatasia. J Bone Miner Res. 2001 Dec;16(12):2313-9. [PubMed:11760847 ]
  28. Watanabe H, Hashimoto-Uoshima M, Goseki-Sone M, Orimo H, Ishikawa I: A novel point mutation (C571T) in the tissue-non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene in a case of adult-type hypophosphatasia. Oral Dis. 2001 Nov;7(6):331-5. [PubMed:11834095 ]
  29. Litmanovitz, Reish O, Dolfin T, Arnon S, Regev R, Grinshpan G, Yamazaki M, Ozono K: Glu274Lys/Gly309Arg mutation of the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene in neonatal hypophosphatasia associated with convulsions. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2002 Feb;25(1):35-40. [PubMed:11999978 ]
  30. Mumm S, Jones J, Finnegan P, Henthorn PS, Podgornik MN, Whyte MP: Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme gene in hypophosphatasia. Mol Genet Metab. 2002 Feb;75(2):143-53. [PubMed:11855933 ]
  31. Spentchian M, Merrien Y, Herasse M, Dobbie Z, Glaser D, Holder SE, Ivarsson SA, Kostiner D, Mansour S, Norman A, Roth J, Stipoljev F, Taillemite JL, van der Smagt JJ, Serre JL, Simon-Bouy B, Taillandier A, Mornet E: Severe hypophosphatasia: characterization of fifteen novel mutations in the ALPL gene. Hum Mutat. 2003 Jul;22(1):105-6. [PubMed:12815606 ]
  32. Herasse M, Spentchian M, Taillandier A, Keppler-Noreuil K, Fliorito AN, Bergoffen J, Wallerstein R, Muti C, Simon-Bouy B, Mornet E: Molecular study of three cases of odontohypophosphatasia resulting from heterozygosity for mutations in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene. J Med Genet. 2003 Aug;40(8):605-9. [PubMed:12920074 ]
  33. Draguet C, Gillerot Y, Mornet E: [Childhood hypophosphatasia: a case report due to a novel mutation]. Arch Pediatr. 2004 May;11(5):440-3. [PubMed:15135428 ]
  34. Brun-Heath I, Taillandier A, Serre JL, Mornet E: Characterization of 11 novel mutations in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene responsible for hypophosphatasia and genotype-phenotype correlations. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Mar;84(3):273-7. Epub 2004 Dec 19. [PubMed:15694177 ]