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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00104
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5336
Name Medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Synonyms
  1. MCAD
Gene Name ACADM
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function This enzyme is specific for acyl chain lengths of 4 to 16.
Pathways
  • 2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency
  • 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiency
  • 3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduria
  • 3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type I
  • 3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type I
  • 3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type III
  • 3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IV
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • Beta-Ketothiolase Deficiency
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (I)
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (II)
  • Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy
  • Fatty acid Metabolism
  • fatty acid metabolism
  • Glutaric Aciduria Type I
  • Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Isovaleric acidemia
  • Isovaleric Aciduria
  • Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)
  • Malonic Aciduria
  • Malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiency
  • Maple Syrup Urine Disease
  • Medium chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)
  • Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Methylmalonic Aciduria
  • Methylmalonic Aciduria Due to Cobalamin-Related Disorders
  • Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Medium Chain Saturated Fatty Acids
  • mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation
  • PPAR signaling pathway
  • Propanoate Metabolism
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Propionic Acidemia
  • Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)
  • Trifunctional protein deficiency
  • Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine Degradation
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)
Reactions
A medium-chain acyl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein → a medium-chain trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein details
Propionyl-CoA + FAD → FADH + Acrylyl-CoA details
Butyryl-CoA + FAD → FADH + (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA details
hexadecanoyl-CoA + FAD → (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoA + FADH details
Isobutyryl-CoA + Acceptor → Methacrylyl-CoA + Reduced acceptor details
(S)-2-Methylbutanoyl-CoA + Acceptor → Tiglyl-CoA + Reduced acceptor details
Octanoyl-CoA + FAD → (2E)-Octenoyl-CoA + FADH details
Lauroyl-CoA + FAD → (2E)-Dodecenoyl-CoA + FADH details
Tetradecanoyl-CoA + FAD → (2E)-Tetradecenoyl-CoA + FADH details
Isovaleryl-CoA + FAD → 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA + FADH details
Electron-transferring flavoprotein + Propionyl-CoA → Reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein + Acrylyl-CoA details
Hexanoyl-CoA + FAD → trans-2-Hexenoyl-CoA + FADH details
Decanoyl-CoA (n-C10:0CoA) + FAD → (2E)-Decenoyl-CoA + FADH details
GO Classification
Biological Process
liver development
response to drug
response to nutrient
response to starvation
response to glucocorticoid stimulus
protein homotetramerization
carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked
fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
cardiac muscle cell differentiation
carnitine biosynthetic process
glycogen biosynthetic process
medium-chain fatty acid catabolic process
post-embryonic development
regulation of gluconeogenesis
response to cold
response to copper ion
Cellular Component
mitochondrial membrane
mitochondrial matrix
axon
Function
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors
acyl-coa dehydrogenase activity
binding
catalytic activity
nucleoside binding
purine nucleoside binding
adenyl nucleotide binding
oxidoreductase activity
fad or fadh2 binding
Molecular Function
flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
fatty-acyl-CoA binding
identical protein binding
isomerase activity
medium-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion matrix
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 1
Locus 1p31
SNPs ACADM
Gene Sequence
>1266 bp
ATGGCAGCGGGGTTCGGGCGATGCTGCAGGGTCCTGAGAAGTATTTCTCGTTTTCATTGG
AGATCACAGCATACAAAAGCCAATCGACAACGTGAACCAGGATTAGGATTTAGTTTTGAG
TTCACCGAACAGCAGAAAGAATTTCAAGCTACTGCTCGTAAATTTGCCAGAGAGGAAATC
ATCCCAGTGGCTGCAGAATATGATAAAACTGGTGAATATCCAGTCCCCCTAATTAGAAGA
GCCTGGGAACTTGGTTTAATGAACACACACATTCCAGAGAACTGTGGAGGTCTTGGACTT
GGAACTTTTGATGCTTGTTTAATTAGTGAAGAATTGGCTTATGGATGTACAGGGGTTCAG
ACTGCTATTGAAGGAAATTCTTTGGGGCAAATGCCTATTATTATTGCTGGAAATGATCAA
CAAAAGAAGAAGTATTTGGGGAGAATGACTGAGGAGCCATTGATGTGTGCTTATTGTGTA
ACAGAACCTGGAGCAGGCTCTGATGTAGCTGGTATAAAGACCAAAGCAGAAAAGAAAGGA
GATGAGTATATTATTAATGGTCAGAAGATGTGGATAACCAACGGAGGAAAAGCTAATTGG
TATTTTTTATTGGCACGTTCTGATCCAGATCCTAAAGCTCCTGCTAATAAAGCCTTTACT
GGATTCATTGTGGAAGCAGATACCCCAGGAATTCAGATTGGGAGAAAGGAATTAAACATG
GGCCAGCGATGTTCAGATACTAGAGGAATTGTCTTCGAAGATGTGAAAGTGCCTAAAGAA
AATGTTTTAATTGGTGACGGAGCTGGTTTCAAAGTTGCAATGGGAGCTTTTGATAAAACC
AGACCTGTAGTAGCTGCTGGTGCTGTTGGATTAGCACAAAGAGCTTTGGATGAAGCTACC
AAGTATGCCCTGGAAAGGAAAACTTTCGGAAAGCTACTTGTAGAGCACCAAGCAATATCA
TTTATGCTGGCTGAAATGGCAATGAAAGTTGAACTAGCTAGAATGAGTTACCAGAGAGCA
GCTTGGGAGGTTGATTCTGGTCGTCGAAATACCTATTATGCTTCTATTGCAAAGGCATTT
GCTGGAGATATTGCAAATCAGTTAGCTACTGATGCTGTGCAGATACTTGGAGGCAATGGA
TTTAATACAGAATATCCTGTAGAAAAACTAATGAGGGATGCCAAAATCTATCAGATTTAT
GAAGGTACTTCACAAATTCAAAGACTTATTGTAGCCCGTGAACACATTGACAAGTACAAA
AATTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 421
Molecular Weight 46587.98
Theoretical pI 8.363
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Medium-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
MAAGFGRCCRVLRSISRFHWRSQHTKANRQREPGLGFSFEFTEQQKEFQATARKFAREEI
IPVAAEYDKTGEYPVPLIRRAWELGLMNTHIPENCGGLGLGTFDACLISEELAYGCTGVQ
TAIEGNSLGQMPIIIAGNDQQKKKYLGRMTEEPLMCAYCVTEPGAGSDVAGIKTKAEKKG
DEYIINGQKMWITNGGKANWYFLLARSDPDPKAPANKAFTGFIVEADTPGIQIGRKELNM
GQRCSDTRGIVFEDVKVPKENVLIGDGAGFKVAMGAFDKTRPVVAAGAVGLAQRALDEAT
KYALERKTFGKLLVEHQAISFMLAEMAMKVELARMSYQRAAWEVDSGRRNTYYASIAKAF
AGDIANQLATDAVQILGGNGFNTEYPVEKLMRDAKIYQIYEGTSQIQRLIVAREHIDKYK
N
GenBank ID Protein 177964
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P11310
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ACADM_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M16827
GeneCard ID ACADM
GenAtlas ID ACADM
HGNC ID HGNC:89
References
General References
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  4. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  5. Sjoblom T, Jones S, Wood LD, Parsons DW, Lin J, Barber TD, Mandelker D, Leary RJ, Ptak J, Silliman N, Szabo S, Buckhaults P, Farrell C, Meeh P, Markowitz SD, Willis J, Dawson D, Willson JK, Gazdar AF, Hartigan J, Wu L, Liu C, Parmigiani G, Park BH, Bachman KE, Papadopoulos N, Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, Velculescu VE: The consensus coding sequences of human breast and colorectal cancers. Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):268-74. Epub 2006 Sep 7. [PubMed:16959974 ]
  6. Kelly DP, Kim JJ, Billadello JJ, Hainline BE, Chu TW, Strauss AW: Nucleotide sequence of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA and its expression in enzyme-deficient human tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jun;84(12):4068-72. [PubMed:3035565 ]
  7. Zhang ZF, Kelly DP, Kim JJ, Zhou YQ, Ogden ML, Whelan AJ, Strauss AW: Structural organization and regulatory regions of the human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene. Biochemistry. 1992 Jan 14;31(1):81-9. [PubMed:1731887 ]
  8. Matsubara Y, Narisawa K, Miyabayashi S, Tada K, Coates PM, Bachmann C, Elsas LJ 2nd, Pollitt RJ, Rhead WJ, Roe CR: Identification of a common mutation in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Aug 31;171(1):498-505. [PubMed:2393404 ]
  9. Lee HJ, Wang M, Paschke R, Nandy A, Ghisla S, Kim JJ: Crystal structures of the wild type and the Glu376Gly/Thr255Glu mutant of human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase: influence of the location of the catalytic base on substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 1996 Sep 24;35(38):12412-20. [PubMed:8823176 ]
  10. Toogood HS, van Thiel A, Basran J, Sutcliffe MJ, Scrutton NS, Leys D: Extensive domain motion and electron transfer in the human electron transferring flavoprotein.medium chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase complex. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jul 30;279(31):32904-12. Epub 2004 May 24. [PubMed:15159392 ]
  11. Toogood HS, van Thiel A, Scrutton NS, Leys D: Stabilization of non-productive conformations underpins rapid electron transfer to electron-transferring flavoprotein. J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 26;280(34):30361-6. Epub 2005 Jun 23. [PubMed:15975918 ]
  12. Tanaka K, Yokota I, Coates PM, Strauss AW, Kelly DP, Zhang Z, Gregersen N, Andresen BS, Matsubara Y, Curtis D, et al.: Mutations in the medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene. Hum Mutat. 1992;1(4):271-9. [PubMed:1363805 ]
  13. Yokota I, Indo Y, Coates PM, Tanaka K: Molecular basis of medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency. An A to G transition at position 985 that causes a lysine-304 to glutamate substitution in the mature protein is the single prevalent mutation. J Clin Invest. 1990 Sep;86(3):1000-3. [PubMed:2394825 ]
  14. Kelly DP, Whelan AJ, Ogden ML, Alpers R, Zhang ZF, Bellus G, Gregersen N, Dorland L, Strauss AW: Molecular characterization of inherited medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Dec;87(23):9236-40. [PubMed:2251268 ]
  15. Yokota I, Coates PM, Hale DE, Rinaldo P, Tanaka K: Molecular survey of a prevalent mutation, 985A-to-G transition, and identification of five infrequent mutations in the medium-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene in 55 patients with MCAD deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Dec;49(6):1280-91. [PubMed:1684086 ]
  16. Gregersen N, Andresen BS, Bross P, Winter V, Rudiger N, Engst S, Christensen E, Kelly D, Strauss AW, Kolvraa S, et al.: Molecular characterization of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency: identification of a lys329 to glu mutation in the MCAD gene, and expression of inactive mutant enzyme protein in E. coli. Hum Genet. 1991 Apr;86(6):545-51. [PubMed:1902818 ]
  17. Blakemore AI, Singleton H, Pollitt RJ, Engel PC, Kolvraa S, Gregersen N, Curtis D: Frequency of the G985 MCAD mutation in the general population. Lancet. 1991 Feb 2;337(8736):298-9. [PubMed:1671131 ]
  18. Andresen BS, Jensen TG, Bross P, Knudsen I, Winter V, Kolvraa S, Bolund L, Ding JH, Chen YT, Van Hove JL, et al.: Disease-causing mutations in exon 11 of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1994 Jun;54(6):975-88. [PubMed:8198141 ]
  19. Ziadeh R, Hoffman EP, Finegold DN, Hoop RC, Brackett JC, Strauss AW, Naylor EW: Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Pennsylvania: neonatal screening shows high incidence and unexpected mutation frequencies. Pediatr Res. 1995 May;37(5):675-8. [PubMed:7603790 ]
  20. Brackett JC, Sims HF, Steiner RD, Nunge M, Zimmerman EM, deMartinville B, Rinaldo P, Slaugh R, Strauss AW: A novel mutation in medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase causes sudden neonatal death. J Clin Invest. 1994 Oct;94(4):1477-83. [PubMed:7929823 ]
  21. Andresen BS, Bross P, Udvari S, Kirk J, Gray G, Kmoch S, Chamoles N, Knudsen I, Winter V, Wilcken B, Yokota I, Hart K, Packman S, Harpey JP, Saudubray JM, Hale DE, Bolund L, Kolvraa S, Gregersen N: The molecular basis of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in compound heterozygous patients: is there correlation between genotype and phenotype? Hum Mol Genet. 1997 May;6(5):695-707. [PubMed:9158144 ]
  22. Kuchler B, Abdel-Ghany AG, Bross P, Nandy A, Rasched I, Ghisla S: Biochemical characterization of a variant human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase with a disease-associated mutation localized in the active site. Biochem J. 1999 Jan 15;337 ( Pt 2):225-30. [PubMed:9882619 ]
  23. Yang BZ, Ding JH, Zhou C, Dimachkie MM, Sweetman L, Dasouki MJ, Wilkinson J, Roe CR: Identification of a novel mutation in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2000 Mar;69(3):259-62. [PubMed:10767181 ]
  24. Andresen BS, Dobrowolski SF, O'Reilly L, Muenzer J, McCandless SE, Frazier DM, Udvari S, Bross P, Knudsen I, Banas R, Chace DH, Engel P, Naylor EW, Gregersen N: Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) mutations identified by MS/MS-based prospective screening of newborns differ from those observed in patients with clinical symptoms: identification and characterization of a new, prevalent mutation that results in mild MCAD deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jun;68(6):1408-18. Epub 2001 May 8. [PubMed:11349232 ]
  25. Zschocke J, Schulze A, Lindner M, Fiesel S, Olgemoller K, Hoffmann GF, Penzien J, Ruiter JP, Wanders RJ, Mayatepek E: Molecular and functional characterisation of mild MCAD deficiency. Hum Genet. 2001 May;108(5):404-8. [PubMed:11409868 ]
  26. Albers S, Levy HL, Irons M, Strauss AW, Marsden D: Compound heterozygosity in four asymptomatic siblings with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2001 Jun;24(3):417-8. [PubMed:11486912 ]