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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00210
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5442
Name Glucokinase
Synonyms
  1. HK IV
  2. HK4
  3. Hexokinase type IV
  4. Hexokinase-4
  5. Hexokinase-D
Gene Name GCK
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in ATP binding
Specific Function Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when glucose is abundant. The role of GCK is to provide G6P for the synthesis of glycogen. Pancreatic glucokinase plays an important role in modulating insulin secretion. Hepatic glucokinase helps to facilitate the uptake and conversion of glucose by acting as an insulin-sensitive determinant of hepatic glucose usage.
Pathways
  • Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
  • Butirosin and neomycin biosynthesis
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Galactose Metabolism
  • Galactosemia
  • Galactosemia II (GALK)
  • Galactosemia III
  • Glycogen synthetase deficiency
  • Glycogenosis, Type III. Cori disease, Debrancher glycogenosis
  • Glycogenosis, Type IV. Amylopectinosis, Anderson disease
  • Glycogenosis, Type VI. Hers disease
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Insulin secretion
  • Insulin signaling pathway
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Sly syndrome
  • Nucleotide Sugars Metabolism
  • Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Starch and Sucrose Metabolism
  • Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency
  • Trehalose Degradation
  • Type II diabetes mellitus
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Glucose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphate details
Adenosine triphosphate + Beta-D-Glucose → ADP + Beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate details
Adenosine triphosphate + Alpha-D-Glucose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphate details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
elevation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration
cellular response to leptin stimulus
detection of glucose
negative regulation of epinephrine secretion
negative regulation of gluconeogenesis
positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process
positive regulation of phosphorylation
cellular response to glucose starvation
regulation of glucose transport
regulation of glycolysis
regulation of potassium ion transport
second-messenger-mediated signaling
NADP metabolic process
positive regulation of glycolysis
glycolysis
glucose transport
endocrine pancreas development
positive regulation of insulin secretion
cellular response to insulin stimulus
calcium ion import
cellular glucose homeostasis
fructose 2,6-bisphosphate metabolic process
glycogen biosynthetic process
transmembrane transport
Cellular Component
cytosol
actin filament
cell cortex part
mitochondrion
nucleoplasm
secretory granule
Function
binding
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups
nucleoside binding
purine nucleoside binding
adenyl nucleotide binding
adenyl ribonucleotide binding
atp binding
phosphotransferase activity, alcohol group as acceptor
hexokinase activity
Molecular Function
magnesium ion binding
glucose binding
ATP binding
glucokinase activity
ADP binding
Process
metabolic process
primary metabolic process
carbohydrate metabolic process
small molecule metabolic process
alcohol metabolic process
monosaccharide metabolic process
hexose metabolic process
glucose metabolic process
glucose catabolic process
glycolysis
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 7
Locus 7p15.3-p15.1
SNPs GCK
Gene Sequence
>1398 bp
ATGCTGGACGACAGAGCCAGGATGGAGGCCGCCAAGAAGGAGAAGGTAGAGCAGATCCTG
GCAGAGTTCCAGCTGCAGGAGGAGGACCTGAAGAAGGTGATGAGACGGATGCAGAAGGAG
ATGGACCGCGGCCTGAGGCTGGAGACCCATGAAGAGGCCAGTGTGAAGATGCTGCCCACC
TACGTGCGCTCCACCCCAGAAGGCTCAGAAGTCGGGGACTTCCTCTCCCTGGACCTGGGT
GGCACTAACTTCAGGGTGATGCTGGTGAAGGTGGGAGAAGGTGAGGAGGGGCAGTGGAGC
GTGAAGACCAAACACCAGATGTACTCCATCCCCGAGGACGCCATGACCGGCACTGCTGAG
ATGCTCTTCGACTACATCTCTGAGTGCATCTCCGACTTCCTGGACAAGCATCAGATGAAA
CACAAGAAGCTGCCCCTGGGCTTCACCTTCTCCTTTCCTGTGAGGCACGAAGACATCGAT
AAGGGCATCCTTCTCAACTGGACCAAGGGCTTCAAGGCCTCAGGAGCAGAAGGGAACAAT
GTCGTGGGGCTTCTGCGAGACGCTATCAAACGGAGAGGGGACTTTGAAATGGATGTGGTG
GCAATGGTGAATGACACGGTGGCCACGATGATCTCCTGCTACTACGAAGACCATCAGTGC
GAGGTCGGCATGATCGTGGGCACGGGCTGCAATGCCTGCTACATGGAGGAGATGCAGAAT
GTGGAGCTGGTGGAGGGGGACGAGGGCCGCATGTGCGTCAATACCGAGTGGGGCGCCTTC
GGGGACTCCGGCGAGCTGGACGAGTTCCTGCTGGAGTATGACCGCCTGGTGGACGAGAGC
TCTGCAAACCCCGGTCAGCAGCTGTATGAGAAGCTCATAGGTGGCAAGTACATGGGCGAG
CTGGTGCGGCTTGTGCTGCTCAGGCTCGTGGACGAAAACCTGCTCTTCCACGGGGAGGCC
TCCGAGCAGCTGCGCACACGCGGAGCCTTCGAGACGCGCTTCGTGTCGCAGGTGGAGAGC
GACACGGGCGACCGCAAGCAGATCTACAACATCCTGAGCACGCTGGGGCTGCGACCCTCG
ACCACCGACTGCGACATCGTGCGCCGCGCCTGCGAGAGCGTGTCTACGCGCGCTGCGCAC
ATGTGCTCGGCGGGGCTGGCGGGCGTCATCAACCGCATGCGCGAGAGCCGCAGCGAGGAC
GTAATGCGCATCACTGTGGGCGTGGATGGCTCCGTGTACAAGCTGCACCCCAGCTTCAAG
GAGCGGTTCCATGCCAGCGTGCGCAGGCTGACGCCCAGCTGCGAGATCACCTTCATCGAG
TCGGAGGAGGGCAGTGGCCGGGGCGCGGCCCTGGTCTCGGCGGTGGCCTGTAAGAAGGCC
TGTATGCTGGGCCAGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 465
Molecular Weight 52191.07
Theoretical pI 5.203
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Glucokinase
MLDDRARMEAAKKEKVEQILAEFQLQEEDLKKVMRRMQKEMDRGLRLETHEEASVKMLPT
YVRSTPEGSEVGDFLSLDLGGTNFRVMLVKVGEGEEGQWSVKTKHQMYSIPEDAMTGTAE
MLFDYISECISDFLDKHQMKHKKLPLGFTFSFPVRHEDIDKGILLNWTKGFKASGAEGNN
VVGLLRDAIKRRGDFEMDVVAMVNDTVATMISCYYEDHQCEVGMIVGTGCNACYMEEMQN
VELVEGDEGRMCVNTEWGAFGDSGELDEFLLEYDRLVDESSANPGQQLYEKLIGGKYMGE
LVRLVLLRLVDENLLFHGEASEQLRTRGAFETRFVSQVESDTGDRKQIYNILSTLGLRPS
TTDCDIVRRACESVSTRAAHMCSAGLAGVINRMRESRSEDVMRITVGVDGSVYKLHPSFK
ERFHASVRRLTPSCEITFIESEEGSGRGAALVSAVACKKACMLGQ
GenBank ID Protein 179427
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P35557
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name HXK4_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M88011
GeneCard ID GCK
GenAtlas ID GCK
HGNC ID HGNC:4195
References
General References
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  3. Scherer SW, Cheung J, MacDonald JR, Osborne LR, Nakabayashi K, Herbrick JA, Carson AR, Parker-Katiraee L, Skaug J, Khaja R, Zhang J, Hudek AK, Li M, Haddad M, Duggan GE, Fernandez BA, Kanematsu E, Gentles S, Christopoulos CC, Choufani S, Kwasnicka D, Zheng XH, Lai Z, Nusskern D, Zhang Q, Gu Z, Lu F, Zeesman S, Nowaczyk MJ, Teshima I, Chitayat D, Shuman C, Weksberg R, Zackai EH, Grebe TA, Cox SR, Kirkpatrick SJ, Rahman N, Friedman JM, Heng HH, Pelicci PG, Lo-Coco F, Belloni E, Shaffer LG, Pober B, Morton CC, Gusella JF, Bruns GA, Korf BR, Quade BJ, Ligon AH, Ferguson H, Higgins AW, Leach NT, Herrick SR, Lemyre E, Farra CG, Kim HG, Summers AM, Gripp KW, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Winsor EJ, Grzeschik KH, Teebi A, Minassian BA, Kere J, Armengol L, Pujana MA, Estivill X, Wilson MD, Koop BF, Tosi S, Moore GE, Boright AP, Zlotorynski E, Kerem B, Kroisel PM, Petek E, Oscier DG, Mould SJ, Dohner H, Dohner K, Rommens JM, Vincent JB, Venter JC, Li PW, Mural RJ, Adams MD, Tsui LC: Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology. Science. 2003 May 2;300(5620):767-72. Epub 2003 Apr 10. [PubMed:12690205 ]
  4. Tanizawa Y, Matsutani A, Chiu KC, Permutt MA: Human glucokinase gene: isolation, structural characterization, and identification of a microsatellite repeat polymorphism. Mol Endocrinol. 1992 Jul;6(7):1070-81. [PubMed:1354840 ]
  5. Tanizawa Y, Koranyi LI, Welling CM, Permutt MA: Human liver glucokinase gene: cloning and sequence determination of two alternatively spliced cDNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Aug 15;88(16):7294-7. [PubMed:1871135 ]
  6. Nishi S, Stoffel M, Xiang K, Shows TB, Bell GI, Takeda J: Human pancreatic beta-cell glucokinase: cDNA sequence and localization of the polymorphic gene to chromosome 7, band p 13. Diabetologia. 1992 Aug;35(8):743-7. [PubMed:1511800 ]
  7. Koranyi LI, Tanizawa Y, Welling CM, Rabin DU, Permutt MA: Human islet glucokinase gene. Isolation and sequence analysis of full-length cDNA. Diabetes. 1992 Jul;41(7):807-11. [PubMed:1612194 ]
  8. Stoffel M, Froguel P, Takeda J, Zouali H, Vionnet N, Nishi S, Weber IT, Harrison RW, Pilkis SJ, Lesage S, et al.: Human glucokinase gene: isolation, characterization, and identification of two missense mutations linked to early-onset non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Aug 15;89(16):7698-702. [PubMed:1502186 ]
  9. Sakura H, Eto K, Kadowaki H, Simokawa K, Ueno H, Koda N, Fukushima Y, Akanuma Y, Yazaki Y, Kadowaki T: Structure of the human glucokinase gene and identification of a missense mutation in a Japanese patient with early-onset non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Dec;75(6):1571-3. [PubMed:1464666 ]
  10. St Charles R, Harrison RW, Bell GI, Pilkis SJ, Weber IT: Molecular model of human beta-cell glucokinase built by analogy to the crystal structure of yeast hexokinase B. Diabetes. 1994 Jun;43(6):784-91. [PubMed:8194664 ]
  11. Kamata K, Mitsuya M, Nishimura T, Eiki J, Nagata Y: Structural basis for allosteric regulation of the monomeric allosteric enzyme human glucokinase. Structure. 2004 Mar;12(3):429-38. [PubMed:15016359 ]
  12. Mitsuya M, Kamata K, Bamba M, Watanabe H, Sasaki Y, Sasaki K, Ohyama S, Hosaka H, Nagata Y, Eiki J, Nishimura T: Discovery of novel 3,6-disubstituted 2-pyridinecarboxamide derivatives as GK activators. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009 May 15;19(10):2718-21. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.03.137. Epub 2009 Mar 29. [PubMed:19362831 ]
  13. Stoffel M, Patel P, Lo YM, Hattersley AT, Lucassen AM, Page R, Bell JI, Bell GI, Turner RC, Wainscoat JS: Missense glucokinase mutation in maturity-onset diabetes of the young and mutation screening in late-onset diabetes. Nat Genet. 1992 Oct;2(2):153-6. [PubMed:1303265 ]
  14. Chiu KC, Tanizawa Y, Permutt MA: Glucokinase gene variants in the common form of NIDDM. Diabetes. 1993 Apr;42(4):579-82. [PubMed:8454109 ]
  15. Stoffel M, Bell KL, Blackburn CL, Powell KL, Seo TS, Takeda J, Vionnet N, Xiang KS, Gidh-Jain M, Pilkis SJ, et al.: Identification of glucokinase mutations in subjects with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 1993 Jun;42(6):937-40. [PubMed:8495817 ]
  16. Takeda J, Gidh-Jain M, Xu LZ, Froguel P, Velho G, Vaxillaire M, Cohen D, Shimada F, Makino H, Nishi S, et al.: Structure/function studies of human beta-cell glucokinase. Enzymatic properties of a sequence polymorphism, mutations associated with diabetes, and other site-directed mutants. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jul 15;268(20):15200-4. [PubMed:8325892 ]
  17. Gidh-Jain M, Takeda J, Xu LZ, Lange AJ, Vionnet N, Stoffel M, Froguel P, Velho G, Sun F, Cohen D, et al.: Glucokinase mutations associated with non-insulin-dependent (type 2) diabetes mellitus have decreased enzymatic activity: implications for structure/function relationships. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 1;90(5):1932-6. [PubMed:8446612 ]
  18. Hager J, Blanche H, Sun F, Vaxillaire NV, Poller W, Cohen D, Czernichow P, Velho G, Robert JJ, Cohen N, et al.: Six mutations in the glucokinase gene identified in MODY by using a nonradioactive sensitive screening technique. Diabetes. 1994 May;43(5):730-3. [PubMed:8168652 ]
  19. Velho G, Blanche H, Vaxillaire M, Bellanne-Chantelot C, Pardini VC, Timsit J, Passa P, Deschamps I, Robert JJ, Weber IT, Marotta D, Pilkis SJ, Lipkind GM, Bell GI, Froguel P: Identification of 14 new glucokinase mutations and description of the clinical profile of 42 MODY-2 families. Diabetologia. 1997 Feb;40(2):217-24. [PubMed:9049484 ]
  20. Guazzini B, Gaffi D, Mainieri D, Multari G, Cordera R, Bertolini S, Pozza G, Meschi F, Barbetti F: Three novel missense mutations in the glucokinase gene (G80S; E221K; G227C) in Italian subjects with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Mutations in brief no. 162. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(2):136. [PubMed:10694920 ]
  21. Hattersley AT, Beards F, Ballantyne E, Appleton M, Harvey R, Ellard S: Mutations in the glucokinase gene of the fetus result in reduced birth weight. Nat Genet. 1998 Jul;19(3):268-70. [PubMed:9662401 ]
  22. Glaser B, Kesavan P, Heyman M, Davis E, Cuesta A, Buchs A, Stanley CA, Thornton PS, Permutt MA, Matschinsky FM, Herold KC: Familial hyperinsulinism caused by an activating glucokinase mutation. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jan 22;338(4):226-30. [PubMed:9435328 ]
  23. Ng MC, Cockburn BN, Lindner TH, Yeung VT, Chow CC, So WY, Li JK, Lo YM, Lee ZS, Cockram CS, Critchley JA, Bell GI, Chan JC: Molecular genetics of diabetes mellitus in Chinese subjects: identification of mutations in glucokinase and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha genes in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus/MODY. Diabet Med. 1999 Nov;16(11):956-63. [PubMed:10588527 ]
  24. Nam JH, Lee HC, Kim YH, Cha BS, Song YD, Lim SK, Kim KR, Huh KB: Identification of glucokinase mutation in subjects with post-renal transplantation diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2000 Dec;50(3):169-76. [PubMed:11106831 ]
  25. Njolstad PR, Sovik O, Cuesta-Munoz A, Bjorkhaug L, Massa O, Barbetti F, Undlien DE, Shiota C, Magnuson MA, Molven A, Matschinsky FM, Bell GI: Neonatal diabetes mellitus due to complete glucokinase deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2001 May 24;344(21):1588-92. [PubMed:11372010 ]