You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00217
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5449
  • HMDBP05053
Name Spermine synthase
Synonyms
  1. SPMSY
  2. Spermidine aminopropyltransferase
Gene Name SMS
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in spermine synthase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the production of spermine from spermidine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM).
Pathways
  • Arginine and proline metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • Glutathione metabolism
  • Spermidine and Spermine Biosynthesis
  • spermine biosynthesis
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Spermidine → 5'-Methylthioadenosine + Spermine details
GO Classification
Biological Process
polyamine metabolic process
methionine metabolic process
spermine biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
Function
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups
spermine synthase activity
Molecular Function
spermidine synthase activity
spermine synthase activity
Process
metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
cellular amino acid derivative metabolic process
cellular biogenic amine metabolic process
polyamine metabolic process
polyamine biosynthetic process
spermine biosynthetic process
cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location X
Locus Xp22.1
SNPs SMS
Gene Sequence
>1101 bp
ATGGCAGCAGCACGGCACAGCACGCTCGACTTCATGCTCGGCGCCAAAGCTGATGGTGAG
ACCATTCTAAAAGGCCTCCAGTCCATTTTCCAGGAGCAGGGGATGGCGGAGTCGGTGCAC
ACCTGGCAGGACCATGGCTATTTAGCAACCTACACAAACAAGAACGGCAGCTTTGCCAAT
TTGAGAATTTACCCACATGGATTGGTGTTGCTGGACCTTCAGAGTTATGATGGTGATGCG
CAAGGCAAAGAAGAGATCGACAGTATTTTGAACAAAGTAGAGGAAAGAATGAAAGAATTG
AGTCAGGACAGTACTGGGCGGGTGAAACGATTACCACCCATAGTGCGAGGAGGAGCCATC
GACAGATACTGGCCCACCGCCGACGGGCGCCTGGTTGAATATGACATAGATGAAGTGGTA
TATGACGAAGATTCACCTTATCAAAATATAAAAATTCTACACTCGAAGCAGTTTGGAAAT
ATTCTCATCCTTAGTGGGGATGTTAATTTGGCAGAGAGTGATTTGGCATATACCCGGGCC
ATCATGGGCAGTGGCAAAGAAGATTACACTGGCAAAGATGTACTCATTCTGGGAGGTGGA
GACGGAGGCATATTGTGTGAAATAGTCAAACTAAAACCAAAGATGGTCACTATGGTAGAG
ATTGACCAAATGGTGATTGATGGGTGTAAGAAATACATGCGAAAAACGTGTGGCGATGTC
TTAGACAATCTTAAAGGAGACTGCTATCAGGTTCTAATAGAAGACTGTATCCCGGTACTG
AAGAGGTACGCCAAAGAAGGGAGAGAATTTGATTATGTGATTAATGATTTGACAGCTGTT
CCAATCTCCACGTCTCCAGAAGAAGATTCCACATGGGAGTTTCTCAGACTGATTCTTGAC
CTCTCAATGAAAGTGTTGAAACAGGATGGGAAATATTTTACACAGGGGAACTGTGTCAAT
CTGACAGAAGCACTGTCGCTCTATGAAGAACAGCTGGGGCGCCTGTATTGTCCTGTGGAA
TTTTCAAAGGAGATCGTCTGTGTCCCTTCATACTTGGAATTGTGGGTATTTTACACTGTT
TGGAAGAAAGCTAAACCCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 366
Molecular Weight 35278.2
Theoretical pI 5.018
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Spermine synthase
MAAARHSTLDFMLGAKADGETILKGLQSIFQEQGMAESVHTWQDHGYLATYTNKNGSFAN
LRIYPHGLVLLDLQSYDGDAQGKEEIDSILNKVEERMKELSQDSTGRVKRLPPIVRGGAI
DRYWPTADGRLVEYDIDEVVYDEDSPYQNIKILHSKQFGNILILSGDVNLAESDLAYTRA
IMGSGKEDYTGKDVLILGGGDGGILCEIVKLKPKMVTMVEIDQMVIDGCKKYMRKTCGDV
LDNLKGDCYQVLIEDCIPVLKRYAKEGREFDYVINDLTAVPISTSPEEDSTWEFLRLILD
LSMKVLKQDGKYFTQGNCVNLTEALSLYEEQLGRLYCPVEFSKEIVCVPSYLELWVFYTV
WKKAKP
GenBank ID Protein 2198557
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P52788
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name SPSY_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AD001528
GeneCard ID SMS
GenAtlas ID SMS
HGNC ID HGNC:11123
References
General References
  1. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD, Comb MJ: Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells. Nat Biotechnol. 2005 Jan;23(1):94-101. Epub 2004 Dec 12. [PubMed:15592455 ]
  4. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330 ]
  5. Ross MT, Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, Scherer S, McLay K, Muzny D, Platzer M, Howell GR, Burrows C, Bird CP, Frankish A, Lovell FL, Howe KL, Ashurst JL, Fulton RS, Sudbrak R, Wen G, Jones MC, Hurles ME, Andrews TD, Scott CE, Searle S, Ramser J, Whittaker A, Deadman R, Carter NP, Hunt SE, Chen R, Cree A, Gunaratne P, Havlak P, Hodgson A, Metzker ML, Richards S, Scott G, Steffen D, Sodergren E, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Ainscough R, Ambrose KD, Ansari-Lari MA, Aradhya S, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Ballabio A, Banerjee R, Barker GE, Barlow KF, Barrett IP, Bates KN, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Beck A, Bethel G, Blechschmidt K, Brady N, Bray-Allen S, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Brown MJ, Bonnin D, Bruford EA, Buhay C, Burch P, Burford D, Burgess J, Burrill W, Burton J, Bye JM, Carder C, Carrel L, Chako J, Chapman JC, Chavez D, Chen E, Chen G, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chinault C, Ciccodicola A, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Clerc-Blankenburg K, Clifford K, Cobley V, Cole CG, Conquer JS, Corby N, Connor RE, David R, Davies J, Davis C, Davis J, Delgado O, Deshazo D, Dhami P, Ding Y, Dinh H, Dodsworth S, Draper H, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunham A, Dunn M, Durbin KJ, Dutta I, Eades T, Ellwood M, Emery-Cohen A, Errington H, Evans KL, Faulkner L, Francis F, Frankland J, Fraser AE, Galgoczy P, Gilbert J, Gill R, Glockner G, Gregory SG, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gu Y, Gwilliam R, Hamilton C, Hart EA, Hawes A, Heath PD, Heitmann K, Hennig S, Hernandez J, Hinzmann B, Ho S, Hoffs M, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hume J, Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Isherwood J, Jacob L, Johnson D, Jones S, de Jong PJ, Joseph SS, Keenan S, Kelly S, Kershaw JK, Khan Z, Kioschis P, Klages S, Knights AJ, Kosiura A, Kovar-Smith C, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leversha M, Lewis L, Liu W, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loulseged H, Loveland JE, Lovell JD, Lozado R, Lu J, Lyne R, Ma J, Maheshwari M, Matthews LH, McDowall J, McLaren S, McMurray A, Meidl P, Meitinger T, Milne S, Miner G, Mistry SL, Morgan M, Morris S, Muller I, Mullikin JC, Nguyen N, Nordsiek G, Nyakatura G, O'Dell CN, Okwuonu G, Palmer S, Pandian R, Parker D, Parrish J, Pasternak S, Patel D, Pearce AV, Pearson DM, Pelan SE, Perez L, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Reichwald K, Rhodes S, Ridler KA, Schlessinger D, Schueler MG, Sehra HK, Shaw-Smith C, Shen H, Sheridan EM, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Sotheran EC, Steingruber HE, Steward CA, Storey R, Swann RM, Swarbreck D, Tabor PE, Taudien S, Taylor T, Teague B, Thomas K, Thorpe A, Timms K, Tracey A, Trevanion S, Tromans AC, d'Urso M, Verduzco D, Villasana D, Waldron L, Wall M, Wang Q, Warren J, Warry GL, Wei X, West A, Whitehead SL, Whiteley MN, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams G, Williams L, Williamson A, Williamson H, Wilming L, Woodmansey RL, Wray PW, Yen J, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zoghbi H, Zorilla S, Buck D, Reinhardt R, Poustka A, Rosenthal A, Lehrach H, Meindl A, Minx PJ, Hillier LW, Willard HF, Wilson RK, Waterston RH, Rice CM, Vaudin M, Coulson A, Nelson DL, Weinstock G, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Gibbs RA, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR: The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. Nature. 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):325-37. [PubMed:15772651 ]
  6. Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR, Vandekerckhove J: Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides. Nat Biotechnol. 2003 May;21(5):566-9. Epub 2003 Mar 31. [PubMed:12665801 ]
  7. Korhonen VP, Halmekyto M, Kauppinen L, Myohanen S, Wahlfors J, Keinanen T, Hyvonen T, Alhonen L, Eloranta T, Janne J: Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding human spermine synthase. DNA Cell Biol. 1995 Oct;14(10):841-7. [PubMed:7546290 ]
  8. Grieff M, Whyte MP, Thakker RV, Mazzarella R: Sequence analysis of 139 kb in Xp22.1 containing spermine synthase and the 5' region of PEX. Genomics. 1997 Sep 1;44(2):227-31. [PubMed:9299240 ]
  9. Cason AL, Ikeguchi Y, Skinner C, Wood TC, Holden KR, Lubs HA, Martinez F, Simensen RJ, Stevenson RE, Pegg AE, Schwartz CE: X-linked spermine synthase gene (SMS) defect: the first polyamine deficiency syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2003 Dec;11(12):937-44. [PubMed:14508504 ]
  10. Wu H, Min J, Zeng H, McCloskey DE, Ikeguchi Y, Loppnau P, Michael AJ, Pegg AE, Plotnikov AN: Crystal structure of human spermine synthase: implications of substrate binding and catalytic mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 6;283(23):16135-46. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M710323200. Epub 2008 Mar 26. [PubMed:18367445 ]