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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00232
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5464
Name Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3
Synonyms
  1. Acylglycerol O-acyltransferase
  2. Adiponutrin
  3. Calcium-independent phospholipase A2-epsilon
  4. iPLA2-epsilon
Gene Name PNPLA3
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in metabolic process
Specific Function Multifunctional enzyme which has both triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol O-acyltransferase activities.
Pathways
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • triacylglycerol degradation
Reactions
Triacylglycerol + Water → DG(22:6(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)/22:6(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)/0:0) + a carboxylate details
Triacylglycerol + Water → 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycerol + Fatty acid details
1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycerol + Water → 1-Acylglycerol + Fatty acid details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
acylglycerol acyl-chain remodeling
triglyceride catabolic process
glycerophospholipid biosynthetic process
triglyceride biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
endoplasmic reticulum membrane
integral to membrane
Molecular Function
phospholipase A2 activity
retinyl-palmitate esterase activity
triglyceride lipase activity
diolein transacylation activity
mono-olein transacylation activity
Process
metabolic process
primary metabolic process
lipid metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Membrane
  2. Single-pass type II membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 22
Locus 22q13.31
SNPs PNPLA3
Gene Sequence
>1446 bp
ATGTACGACGCAGAGCGCGGCTGGAGCTTGTCCTTCGCGGGCTGCGGCTTCCTGGGCTTC
TACCACGTCGGGGCGACCCGCTGCCTGAGCGAGCACGCCCCGCACCTCCTCCGCGACGCG
CGCATGTTGTTCGGCGCTTCGGCCGGGGCGTTGCACTGCGTCGGCGTCCTCTCCGGTATC
CCGCTGGAGCAGACTCTGCAGGTCCTCTCAGATCTTGTGCGGAAGGCCAGGAGTCGGAAC
ATTGGCATCTTCCATCCATCCTTCAACTTAAGCAAGTTCCTCCGACAGGGTCTCTGCAAA
TGCCTCCCGGCCAATGTCCACCAGCTCATCTCCGGCAAAATAGGCATCTCTCTTACCAGA
GTGTCTGATGGGGAAAACGTTCTGGTGTCTGACTTTCGGTCCAAAGACGAAGTCGTGGAT
GCCTTGGTATGTTCCTGCTTCATCCCCTTCTACAGTGGCCTTATCCCTCCTTCCTTCAGA
GGCGTGCGATATGTGGATGGAGGAGTGAGTGACAACGTACCCTTCATTGATGCCAAAACA
ACCATCACCGTGTCCCCCTTCTATGGGGAGTACGACATCTGCCCTAAAGTCAAGTCCACG
AACTTTCTTCATGTGGACATCACCAAGCTCAGTCTACGCCTCTGCACAGGGAACCTCTAC
CTTCTCTCGAGAGCTTTTGTCCCCCCGGATCTCAAGGTGCTGGGAGAGATATGCCTTCGA
GGATATTTGGATGCATTCAGGTTCTTGGAAGAGAAGGGCATCTGCAACAGGCCCCAGCCA
GGCCTGAAGTCATCCTCAGAAGGGATGGATCCTGAGGTCGCCATGCCCAGCTGGGCAAAC
ATGAGTCTGGATTCTTCCCCGGAGTCGGCTGCCTTGGCTGTGAGGCTGGAGGGAGATGAG
CTGCTAGACCACCTGCGTCTCAGCATCCTGCCCTGGGATGAGAGCATCCTGGACACCCTC
TCGCCCAGGCTCGCTACAGCACTGAGTGAAGAAATGAAAGACAAAGGTGGATACATGAGC
AAGATTTGCAACTTGCTACCCATTAGGATAATGTCTTATGTAATGCTGCCCTGTACCCTG
CCTGTGGAATCTGCCATTGCGATTGTCCAGAGACTGGTGACATGGCTTCCAGATATGCCC
GACGATGTCCTGTGGTTGCAGTGGGTGACCTCACAGGTGTTCACTCGAGTGCTGATGTGT
CTGCTCCCCGCCTCCAGGTCCCAAATGCCAGTGAGCAGCCAACAGGCCTCCCCATGCACA
CCTGAGCAGGACTGGCCCTGCTGGACTCCCTGCTCCCCCAAGGGCTGTCCAGCAGAGACC
AAAGCAGAGGCCACCCCGCGGTCCATCCTCAGGTCCAGCCTGAACTTCTTCTTGGGCAAT
AAAGTACCTGCTGGTGCTGAGGGGCTCTCCACCTTTCCCAGTTTTTCACTAGAGAAGAGT
CTGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 481
Molecular Weight 52864.64
Theoretical pI 6.698
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3
MYDAERGWSLSFAGCGFLGFYHVGATRCLSEHAPHLLRDARMLFGASAGALHCVGVLSGI
PLEQTLQVLSDLVRKARSRNIGIFHPSFNLSKFLRQGLCKCLPANVHQLISGKIGISLTR
VSDGENVLVSDFRSKDEVVDALVCSCFIPFYSGLIPPSFRGVRYVDGGVSDNVPFIDAKT
TITVSPFYGEYDICPKVKSTNFLHVDITKLSLRLCTGNLYLLSRAFVPPDLKVLGEICLR
GYLDAFRFLEEKGICNRPQPGLKSSSEGMDPEVAMPSWANMSLDSSPESAALAVRLEGDE
LLDHLRLSILPWDESILDTLSPRLATALSEEMKDKGGYMSKICNLLPIRIMSYVMLPCTL
PVESAIAIVQRLVTWLPDMPDDVLWLQWVTSQVFTRVLMCLLPASRSQMPVSSQQASPCT
PEQDWPCWTPCSPKGCPAETKAEATPRSILRSSLNFFLGNKVPAGAEGLSTFPSFSLEKS
L
GenBank ID Protein 17059636
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q9NST1
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PLPL3_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID AL138578
GeneCard ID PNPLA3
GenAtlas ID PNPLA3
HGNC ID HGNC:18590
References
General References
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  3. Dunham I, Shimizu N, Roe BA, Chissoe S, Hunt AR, Collins JE, Bruskiewich R, Beare DM, Clamp M, Smink LJ, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Babbage A, Bagguley C, Bailey J, Barlow K, Bates KN, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bridgeman AM, Buck D, Burgess J, Burrill WD, O'Brien KP, et al.: The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22. Nature. 1999 Dec 2;402(6761):489-95. [PubMed:10591208 ]
  4. Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, Cole CG, Goward ME, Aguado B, Mallya M, Mokrab Y, Huckle EJ, Beare DM, Dunham I: A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome. Genome Biol. 2004;5(10):R84. Epub 2004 Sep 30. [PubMed:15461802 ]
  5. Collins JE, Goward ME, Cole CG, Smink LJ, Huckle EJ, Knowles S, Bye JM, Beare DM, Dunham I: Reevaluating human gene annotation: a second-generation analysis of chromosome 22. Genome Res. 2003 Jan;13(1):27-36. [PubMed:12529303 ]
  6. Jenkins CM, Mancuso DJ, Yan W, Sims HF, Gibson B, Gross RW: Identification, cloning, expression, and purification of three novel human calcium-independent phospholipase A2 family members possessing triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol transacylase activities. J Biol Chem. 2004 Nov 19;279(47):48968-75. Epub 2004 Sep 10. [PubMed:15364929 ]
  7. Liu YM, Moldes M, Bastard JP, Bruckert E, Viguerie N, Hainque B, Basdevant A, Langin D, Pairault J, Clement K: Adiponutrin: A new gene regulated by energy balance in human adipose tissue. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2684-9. [PubMed:15181042 ]
  8. Johansson LE, Lindblad U, Larsson CA, Rastam L, Ridderstrale M: Polymorphisms in the adiponutrin gene are associated with increased insulin secretion and obesity. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Nov;159(5):577-83. doi: 10.1530/EJE-08-0426. Epub 2008 Aug 26. [PubMed:18728122 ]
  9. Romeo S, Kozlitina J, Xing C, Pertsemlidis A, Cox D, Pennacchio LA, Boerwinkle E, Cohen JC, Hobbs HH: Genetic variation in PNPLA3 confers susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Genet. 2008 Dec;40(12):1461-5. doi: 10.1038/ng.257. Epub 2008 Sep 25. [PubMed:18820647 ]
  10. Kotronen A, Johansson LE, Johansson LM, Roos C, Westerbacka J, Hamsten A, Bergholm R, Arkkila P, Arola J, Kiviluoto T, Fisher RM, Ehrenborg E, Orho-Melander M, Ridderstrale M, Groop L, Yki-Jarvinen H: A common variant in PNPLA3, which encodes adiponutrin, is associated with liver fat content in humans. Diabetologia. 2009 Jun;52(6):1056-60. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1285-z. Epub 2009 Feb 18. [PubMed:19224197 ]
  11. He S, McPhaul C, Li JZ, Garuti R, Kinch L, Grishin NV, Cohen JC, Hobbs HH: A sequence variation (I148M) in PNPLA3 associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease disrupts triglyceride hydrolysis. J Biol Chem. 2010 Feb 26;285(9):6706-15. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.064501. Epub 2009 Dec 23. [PubMed:20034933 ]
  12. Sookoian S, Castano GO, Burgueno AL, Gianotti TF, Rosselli MS, Pirola CJ: A nonsynonymous gene variant in the adiponutrin gene is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease severity. J Lipid Res. 2009 Oct;50(10):2111-6. doi: 10.1194/jlr.P900013-JLR200. [PubMed:19738004 ]