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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00260
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5492
Name Squalene synthase
Synonyms
  1. FPP:FPP farnesyltransferase
  2. Farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase
  3. SQS
  4. SS
Gene Name FDFT1
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in transferase activity
Specific Function Not Available
Pathways
  • Alendronate Action Pathway
  • Atorvastatin Action Pathway
  • Cerivastatin Action Pathway
  • CHILD Syndrome
  • Cholesteryl ester storage disease
  • Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)
  • Desmosterolosis
  • Fluvastatin Action Pathway
  • Hyper-IgD syndrome
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Ibandronate Action Pathway
  • lanosterol biosynthesis
  • Lovastatin Action Pathway
  • Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)
  • Mevalonic aciduria
  • Pamidronate Action Pathway
  • Pravastatin Action Pathway
  • Risedronate Action Pathway
  • Rosuvastatin Action Pathway
  • Simvastatin Action Pathway
  • Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)
  • Steroid Biosynthesis
  • Wolman disease
  • Zoledronate Action Pathway
Reactions
Farnesyl pyrophosphate + NAD(P)H → Squalene + Pyrophosphate + NAD(P)(+) details
Farnesyl pyrophosphate → Pyrophosphate + Presqualene diphosphate details
Presqualene diphosphate + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Pyrophosphate + Squalene + NADP details
Farnesyl pyrophosphate + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Squalene + Pyrophosphate + NADP details
GO Classification
Biological Process
isoprenoid biosynthetic process
cholesterol biosynthetic process
cellular lipid metabolic process
farnesyl diphosphate metabolic process
Cellular Component
endoplasmic reticulum membrane
integral to membrane
Component
cell part
membrane part
intrinsic to membrane
integral to membrane
Function
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring alkyl or aryl (other than methyl) groups
prenyltransferase activity
farnesyltranstransferase activity
farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase activity
Molecular Function
oxidoreductase activity
farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase activity
squalene synthase activity
Process
metabolic process
primary metabolic process
biosynthetic process
lipid metabolic process
lipid biosynthetic process
Cellular Location
  1. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane
  2. Multi-pass membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 8
Locus 8p23.1-p22
SNPs FDFT1
Gene Sequence
>1254 bp
ATGGAGTTCGTGAAATGCCTTGGCCACCCCGAAGAGTTCTACAACCTGGTGCGCTTCCGG
ATCGGGGGCAAGCGGAAGGTGATGCCCAAGATGGACCAGGACTCGCTCAGCAGCAGCCTG
AAAACTTGCTACAAGTATCTCAATCAGACCAGTCGCAGTTTCGCAGCTGTTATCCAGGCG
CTGGATGGGGAAATGCGCAACGCAGTGTGCATATTTTATCTGGTTCTCCGAGCTCTGGAC
ACACTGGAAGATGACATGACCATCAGTGTGGAAAAGAAGGTCCCGCTGTTACACAACTTT
CACTCTTTCCTTTACCAACCAGACTGGCGGTTCATGGAGAGCAAGGAGAAGGATCGCCAG
GTGCTGGAGGACTTCCCAACGATCTCCCTTGAGTTTAGAAATCTGGCTGAGAAATACCAA
ACAGTGATTGCCGACATTTGCCGGAGAATGGGCATTGGGATGGCAGAGTTTTTGGATAAG
CATGTGACCTCTGAACAGGAGTGGGACAAGTACTGCCACTATGTTGCTGGGCTGGTCGGA
ATTGGCCTTTCCCGTCTTTTCTCAGCCTCAGAGTTTGAAGACCCCTTAGTTGGTGAAGAT
ACAGAACGTGCCAACTCTATGGGCCTGTTTCTGCAGAAAACAAACATCATCCGTGACTAT
CTGGAAGACCAGCAAGGAGGAAGAGAGTTCTGGCCTCAAGAGGTTTGGAGCAGGTATGTT
AAGAAGTTAGGGGATTTTGCTAAGCCGGAGAATATTGACTTGGCCGTGCAGTGCCTGAAT
GAACTTATAACCAATGCACTGCACCACATCCCAGATGTCATCACCTACCTTTCGAGACTC
AGAAACCAGAGTGTGTTTAACTTCTGCGCTATTCCACAGGTGATGGCCATTGCCACTTTG
GCTGCCTGTTATAATAACCAGCAGGTGTTCAAAGGGGCAGTGAAGATTCGGAAAGGGCAA
GCAGTGACCCTGATGATGGATGCCACCAATATGCCAGCTGTCAAAGCCATCATATATCAG
TATATGGAAGAGATTTATCATAGAATCCCCGACTCAGACCCATCTTCTAGCAAAACAAGG
CAGATCATCTCCACCATCCGGACGCAGAATCTTCCCAACTGTCAGCTGATTTCCCGAAGC
CACTACTCCCCCATCTACCTGTCGTTTGTCATGCTTTTGGCTGCCCTGAGCTGGCAGTAC
CTGACCACTCTCTCCCAGGTAACAGAAGACTATGTTCAGACTGGAGAACACTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 417
Molecular Weight 48114.87
Theoretical pI 6.538
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Squalene synthase
MEFVKCLGHPEEFYNLVRFRIGGKRKVMPKMDQDSLSSSLKTCYKYLNQTSRSFAAVIQA
LDGEMRNAVCIFYLVLRALDTLEDDMTISVEKKVPLLHNFHSFLYQPDWRFMESKEKDRQ
VLEDFPTISLEFRNLAEKYQTVIADICRRMGIGMAEFLDKHVTSEQEWDKYCHYVAGLVG
IGLSRLFSASEFEDPLVGEDTERANSMGLFLQKTNIIRDYLEDQQGGREFWPQEVWSRYV
KKLGDFAKPENIDLAVQCLNELITNALHHIPDVITYLSRLRNQSVFNFCAIPQVMAIATL
AACYNNQQVFKGAVKIRKGQAVTLMMDATNMPAVKAIIYQYMEEIYHRIPDSDPSSSKTR
QIISTIRTQNLPNCQLISRSHYSPIYLSFVMLLAALSWQYLTTLSQVTEDYVQTGEH
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P37268
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name FDFT_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID L06070
GeneCard ID FDFT1
GenAtlas ID FDFT1
HGNC ID HGNC:3629
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Robinson GW, Tsay YH, Kienzle BK, Smith-Monroy CA, Bishop RW: Conservation between human and fungal squalene synthetases: similarities in structure, function, and regulation. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 May;13(5):2706-17. [PubMed:8474436 ]
  3. Jiang G, McKenzie TL, Conrad DG, Shechter I: Transcriptional regulation by lovastatin and 25-hydroxycholesterol in HepG2 cells and molecular cloning and expression of the cDNA for the human hepatic squalene synthase. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jun 15;268(17):12818-24. [PubMed:7685352 ]
  4. Summers C, Karst F, Charles AD: Cloning, expression and characterisation of the cDNA encoding human hepatic squalene synthase, and its relationship to phytoene synthase. Gene. 1993 Dec 22;136(1-2Che):185-92. [PubMed:8294001 ]
  5. Soltis DA, McMahon G, Caplan SL, Dudas DA, Chamberlin HA, Vattay A, Dottavio D, Rucker ML, Engstrom RG, Cornell-Kennon SA, et al.: Expression, purification, and characterization of the human squalene synthase: use of yeast and baculoviral systems. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995 Feb 1;316(2):713-23. [PubMed:7864626 ]
  6. Pandit J, Danley DE, Schulte GK, Mazzalupo S, Pauly TA, Hayward CM, Hamanaka ES, Thompson JF, Harwood HJ Jr: Crystal structure of human squalene synthase. A key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 29;275(39):30610-7. [PubMed:10896663 ]
  7. Do R, Pare G, Montpetit A, Hudson TJ, Gaudet D, Engert JC: K45R variant of squalene synthase increases total cholesterol levels in two study samples from a French Canadian population. Hum Mutat. 2008 May;29(5):689-94. doi: 10.1002/humu.20702. [PubMed:18350552 ]