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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00273
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5505
  • HMDBP05338
Name Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
Synonyms
  1. TH
  2. Tyrosine 3-hydroxylase
Gene Name TH
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific Function Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
Pathways
  • Alcoholism
  • Amphetamine addiction
  • Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase Deficiency
  • Catecholamine Biosynthesis
  • Cocaine addiction
  • dopamine biosynthesis
  • Dopaminergic synapse
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency
  • Tyrosine Metabolism
  • Tyrosine metabolism
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen → L-Dopa + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin details
L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + Water details
GO Classification
Biological Process
sensory perception of sound
locomotory behavior
sphingolipid metabolic process
response to zinc ion
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
cellular response to drug
response to electrical stimulus
response to light stimulus
mating behavior
phthalate metabolic process
multicellular organismal aging
circadian sleep/wake cycle
response to lipopolysaccharide
phytoalexin metabolic process
dopamine biosynthetic process from tyrosine
response to pyrethroid
eye photoreceptor cell development
response to ether
synaptic vesicle amine transport
response to water deprivation
synaptic transmission, dopaminergic
terpene metabolic process
response to salt stress
neurotransmitter biosynthetic process
cellular response to glucose stimulus
fatty acid metabolic process
cerebral cortex development
response to ethanol
cellular response to manganese ion
cellular response to nicotine
response to amphetamine
social behavior
memory
response to peptide hormone stimulus
epinephrine biosynthetic process
isoquinoline alkaloid metabolic process
regulation of heart contraction
learning
response to nutrient levels
response to activity
visual perception
heart morphogenesis
norepinephrine biosynthetic process
response to corticosterone stimulus
pigmentation
cellular response to growth factor stimulus
eating behavior
response to estradiol stimulus
response to hypoxia
response to herbicide
embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis
Cellular Component
cytosol
mitochondrion
dendrite
melanosome membrane
nucleus
synaptic vesicle
terminal button
internal side of plasma membrane
perikaryon
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
neuron projection
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
iron ion binding
monooxygenase activity
oxidoreductase activity
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity
oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Molecular Function
ferrous iron binding
oxygen binding
ferric iron binding
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity
dopamine binding
tetrahydrobiopterin binding
amino acid binding
Process
metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
oxidation reduction
cellular amino acid derivative metabolic process
cellular biogenic amine metabolic process
cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process
cellular amino acid metabolic process
catecholamine metabolic process
catecholamine biosynthetic process
aromatic amino acid family metabolic process
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 11
Locus 11p15.5
SNPs TH
Gene Sequence
>1587 bp
ATGCCCACCCCCGACGCCACCACGCCACAGGCCAAGGGCTTCCGCAGGGCCGTGTCTGAG
CTGGACGCCAAGCAGGCAGAGGCCATCATGGTAAGAGGGCAGGGCGCCCCGGGGCCCAGC
CTCACAGGCTCTCCGTGGCCTGGAACTGCAGCCCCAGCTGCATCCTACACCCCCACCCCA
AGGTCCCCGCGGTTCATTGGGCGCAGGCAGAGCCTCATCGAGGACGCCCGCAAGGAGCGG
GAGGCGGCGGTGGCAGCAGCGGCCGCTGCAGTCCCCTCGGAGCCCGGGGACCCCCTGGAG
GCTGTGGCCTTTGAGGAGAAGGAGGGGAAGGCCGTGCTAAACCTGCTCTTCTCCCCGAGG
GCCACCAAGCCCTCGGCGCTGTCCCGAGCTGTGAAGGTGTTTGAGACGTTTGAAGCCAAA
ATCCACCATCTAGAGACCCGGCCCGCCCAGAGGCCGCGAGCTGGGGGCCCCCACCTGGAG
TACTTCGTGCGCCTCGAGGTGCGCCGAGGGGACCTGGCCGCCCTGCTCAGTGGTGTGCGC
CAGGTGTCAGAGGACGTGCGCAGCCCCGCGGGGCCCAAGGTCCCCTGGTTCCCAAGAAAA
GTGTCAGAGCTGGACAAGTGTCATCACCTGGTCACCAAGTTCGACCCTGACCTGGACTTG
GACCACCCGGGCTTCTCGGACCAGGTGTACCGCCAGCGCAGGAAGCTGATTGCTGAGATC
GCCTTCCAGTACAGGCACGGCGACCCGATTCCCCGTGTGGAGTACACCGCCGAGGAGATT
GCCACCTGGAAGGAGGTCTACACCACGCTGAAGGGCCTCTACGCCACGCACGCCTGCGGG
GAGCACCTGGAGGCCTTTGCTTTGCTGGAGCGCTTCAGCGGCTACCGGGAAGACAATATC
CCCCAGCTGGAGGACGTCTCCCGCTTCCTGAAGGAGCGCACGGGCTTCCAGCTGCGGCCT
GTGGCCGGCCTGCTGTCCGCCCGGGACTTCCTGGCCAGCCTGGCCTTCCGCGTGTTCCAG
TGCACCCAGTATATCCGCCACGCGTCCTCGCCCATGCACTCCCCTGAGCCGGACTGCTGC
CACGAGCTGCTGGGGCACGTGCCCATGCTGGCCGACCGCACCTTCGCGCAGTTCTCGCAG
GACATTGGCCTGGCGTCCCTGGGGGCCTCGGATGAGGAAATTGAGAAGCTGTCCACGCTG
TCATGGTTCACGGTGGAGTTCGGGCTGTGTAAGCAGAACGGGGAGGTGAAGGCCTATGGT
GCCGGGCTGCTGTCCTCCTACGGGGAGCTCCTGCACTGCCTGTCTGAGGAGCCTGAGATT
CGGGCCTTCGACCCTGAGGCTGCGGCCGTGCAGCCCTACCAAGACCAGACGTACCAGTCA
GTCTACTTCGTGTCTGAGAGCTTCAGTGACGCCAAGGACAAGCTCAGGAGCTATGCCTCA
CGCATCCAGCGCCCCTTCTCCGTGAAGTTCGACCCGTACACGCTGGCCATCGACGTGCTG
GACAGCCCCCAGGCCGTGCGGCGCTCCCTGGAGGGTGTCCAGGATGAGCTGGACACCCTT
GCCCATGCGCTGAGTGCCATTGGCTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 528
Molecular Weight 55611.26
Theoretical pI 6.109
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
MPTPDATTPQAKGFRRAVSELDAKQAEAIMVRGQGAPGPSLTGSPWPGTAAPAASYTPTP
RSPRFIGRRQSLIEDARKEREAAVAAAAAAVPSEPGDPLEAVAFEEKEGKAVLNLLFSPR
ATKPSALSRAVKVFETFEAKIHHLETRPAQRPRAGGPHLEYFVRLEVRRGDLAALLSGVR
QVSEDVRSPAGPKVPWFPRKVSELDKCHHLVTKFDPDLDLDHPGFSDQVYRQRRKLIAEI
AFQYRHGDPIPRVEYTAEEIATWKEVYTTLKGLYATHACGEHLEAFALLERFSGYREDNI
PQLEDVSRFLKERTGFQLRPVAGLLSARDFLASLAFRVFQCTQYIRHASSPMHSPEPDCC
HELLGHVPMLADRTFAQFSQDIGLASLGASDEEIEKLSTLYWFTVEFGLCKQNGEVKAYG
AGLLSSYGELLHCLSEEPEIRAFDPEAAAVQPYQDQTYQSVYFVSESFSDAKDKLRSYAS
RIQRPFSVKFDPYTLAIDVLDSPQAVRRSLEGVQDELDTLAHALSAIG
GenBank ID Protein 339681
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P07101
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name TY3H_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M17589
GeneCard ID TH
GenAtlas ID TH
HGNC ID HGNC:11782
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Taylor TD, Noguchi H, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Kuroki Y, Dewar K, Lloyd C, Itoh T, Takeda T, Kim DW, She X, Barlow KF, Bloom T, Bruford E, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Eichler E, FitzGerald MG, Jaffe DB, LaButti K, Nicol R, Park HS, Seaman C, Sougnez C, Yang X, Zimmer AR, Zody MC, Birren BW, Nusbaum C, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Rogers J, Lander ES, Sakaki Y: Human chromosome 11 DNA sequence and analysis including novel gene identification. Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):497-500. [PubMed:16554811 ]
  3. Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, Sklar P, Ardlie K, Patil N, Shaw N, Lane CR, Lim EP, Kalyanaraman N, Nemesh J, Ziaugra L, Friedland L, Rolfe A, Warrington J, Lipshutz R, Daley GQ, Lander ES: Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):231-8. [PubMed:10391209 ]
  4. Kaneda N, Kobayashi K, Ichinose H, Kishi F, Nakazawa A, Kurosawa Y, Fujita K, Nagatsu T: Isolation of a novel cDNA clone for human tyrosine hydroxylase: alternative RNA splicing produces four kinds of mRNA from a single gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Aug 14;146(3):971-5. [PubMed:2887169 ]
  5. Grima B, Lamouroux A, Boni C, Julien JF, Javoy-Agid F, Mallet J: A single human gene encoding multiple tyrosine hydroxylases with different predicted functional characteristics. Nature. 1987 Apr 16-22;326(6114):707-11. [PubMed:2882428 ]
  6. Kobayashi K, Kaneda N, Ichinose H, Kishi F, Nakazawa A, Kurosawa Y, Fujita K, Nagatsu T: Isolation of a full-length cDNA clone encoding human tyrosine hydroxylase type 3. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Aug 25;15(16):6733. [PubMed:2888085 ]
  7. Kobayashi K, Kaneda N, Ichinose H, Kishi F, Nakazawa A, Kurosawa Y, Fujita K, Nagatsu T: Structure of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: alternative splicing from a single gene accounts for generation of four mRNA types. J Biochem. 1988 Jun;103(6):907-12. [PubMed:2902075 ]
  8. Le Bourdelles B, Boularand S, Boni C, Horellou P, Dumas S, Grima B, Mallet J: Analysis of the 5' region of the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene: combinatorial patterns of exon splicing generate multiple regulated tyrosine hydroxylase isoforms. J Neurochem. 1988 Mar;50(3):988-91. [PubMed:2892893 ]
  9. Ginns EI, Rehavi M, Martin BM, Weller M, O'Malley KL, LaMarca ME, McAllister CG, Paul SM: Expression of human tyrosine hydroxylase cDNA in invertebrate cells using a baculovirus vector. J Biol Chem. 1988 May 25;263(15):7406-10. [PubMed:2896667 ]
  10. Ludecke B, Dworniczak B, Bartholome K: A point mutation in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene associated with Segawa's syndrome. Hum Genet. 1995 Jan;95(1):123-5. [PubMed:7814018 ]
  11. Ludecke B, Bartholome K: Frequent sequence variant in the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene. Hum Genet. 1995 Jun;95(6):716. [PubMed:7789962 ]
  12. Knappskog PM, Flatmark T, Mallet J, Ludecke B, Bartholome K: Recessively inherited L-DOPA-responsive dystonia caused by a point mutation (Q381K) in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jul;4(7):1209-12. [PubMed:8528210 ]
  13. Ludecke B, Knappskog PM, Clayton PT, Surtees RA, Clelland JD, Heales SJ, Brand MP, Bartholome K, Flatmark T: Recessively inherited L-DOPA-responsive parkinsonism in infancy caused by a point mutation (L205P) in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1996 Jul;5(7):1023-8. [PubMed:8817341 ]
  14. Kunugi H, Kawada Y, Hattori M, Ueki A, Otsuka M, Nanko S: Association study of structural mutations of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene with schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Am J Med Genet. 1998 Mar 28;81(2):131-3. [PubMed:9613851 ]
  15. Ishiguro H, Arinami T, Saito T, Akazawa S, Enomoto M, Mitushio H, Fujishiro H, Tada K, Akimoto Y, Mifune H, Shiozuka S, Hamaguchi H, Toru M, Shibuya H: Systematic search for variations in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene and their associations with schizophrenia, affective disorders, and alcoholism. Am J Med Genet. 1998 Sep 7;81(5):388-96. [PubMed:9754624 ]
  16. van den Heuvel LP, Luiten B, Smeitink JA, de Rijk-van Andel JF, Hyland K, Steenbergen-Spanjers GC, Janssen RJ, Wevers RA: A common point mutation in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in autosomal recessive L-DOPA-responsive dystonia in the Dutch population. Hum Genet. 1998 Jun;102(6):644-6. [PubMed:9703425 ]
  17. Swaans RJ, Rondot P, Renier WO, Van Den Heuvel LP, Steenbergen-Spanjers GC, Wevers RA: Four novel mutations in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene in patients with infantile parkinsonism. Ann Hum Genet. 2000 Jan;64(Pt 1):25-31. [PubMed:11246459 ]