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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00280
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5512
  • HMDBP05339
Name Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase
Synonyms
  1. PAH
  2. Phe-4-monooxygenase
Gene Name PAH
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in amino acid binding
Specific Function Not Available
Pathways
  • L-phenylalanine degradation
  • Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism
  • Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
  • Phenylketonuria
  • Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)
  • Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)
Reactions
L-Phenylalanine + L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + Oxygen → L-Tyrosine + 4a-Hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin details
L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Phenylalanine + Oxygen → 4a-Carbinolamine tetrahydrobiopterin + L-Tyrosine + Water details
GO Classification
Biological Process
protein hydroxylation
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
tetrahydrobiopterin metabolic process
tyrosine biosynthetic process
neurotransmitter biosynthetic process
cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
L-phenylalanine catabolic process
catecholamine biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase activity
binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
iron ion binding
monooxygenase activity
carboxylic acid binding
amino acid binding
oxidoreductase activity
oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced pteridine as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Molecular Function
phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase activity
cofactor binding
iron ion binding
amino acid binding
Process
l-phenylalanine metabolic process
l-phenylalanine catabolic process
metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
oxidation reduction
cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process
cellular amino acid metabolic process
aromatic amino acid family metabolic process
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 12
Locus 12q22-q24.2
SNPs PAH
Gene Sequence
>1359 bp
ATGTCCACTGCGGTCCTGGAAAACCCAGGCTTGGGCAGGAAACTCTCTGACTTTGGACAG
GAAACAAGCTATATTGAAGACAACTGCAATCAAAATGGTGCCATATCACTGATCTTCTCA
CTCAAAGAAGAAGTTGGTGCATTGGCCAAAGTATTGCGCTTATTTGAGGAGAATGATGTA
AACCTGACCCACATTGAATCTAGACCTTCTCGTTTAAAGAAAGATGAGTATGAATTTTTC
ACCCATTTGGATAAACGTAGCCTGCCTGCTCTGACAAACATCATCAAGATCTTGAGGCAT
GACATTGGTGCCACTGTCCATGAGCTTTCACGAGATAAGAAGAAAGACACAGTGCCCTGG
TTCCCAAGAACCATTCAAGAGCTGGACAGATTTGCCAATCAGATTCTCAGCTATGGAGCG
GAACTGGATGCTGACCACCCTGGTTTTAAAGATCCTGTGTACCGTGCAAGACGGAAGCAG
TTTGCTGACATTGCCTACAACTACCGCCATGGGCAGCCCATCCCTCGAGTGGAATACATG
GAGGAAGAAAAGAAAACATGGGGCACAGTGTTCAAGACTCTGAAGTCCTTGTATAAAACC
CATGCTTGCTATGAGTACAATCACATTTTTCCACTTCTTGAAAAGTACTGTGGCTTCCAT
GAAGATAACATTCCCCAGCTGGAAGACGTTTCTCAATTCCTGCAGACTTGCACTGGTTTC
CGCCTCCGACCTGTGGCTGGCCTGCTTTCCTCTCGGGATTTCTTGGGTGGCCTGGCCTTC
CGAGTCTTCCACTGCACACAGTACATCAGACATGGATCCAAGCCCATGTATACCCCCGAA
CCTGACATCTGCCATGAGCTGTTGGGACATGTGCCCTTGTTTTCAGATCGCAGCTTTGCC
CAGTTTTCCCAGGAAATTGGCCTTGCCTCTCTGGGTGCACCTGATGAATACATTGAAAAG
CTCGCCACAATTTACTGGTTTACTGTGGAGTTTGGGCTCTGCAAACAAGGAGACTCCATA
AAGGCATATGGTGCTGGGCTCCTGTCATCCTTTGGTGAATTACAGTACTGCTTATCAGAG
AAGCCAAAGCTTCTCCCCCTGGAGCTGGAGAAGACAGCCATCCAAAATTACACTGTCACG
GAGTTCCAGCCCCTGTATTACGTGGCAGAGAGTTTTAATGATGCCAAGGAGAAAGTAAGG
AACTTTGCTGCCACAATACCTCGGCCCTTCTCAGTTCGCTACGACCCATACACCCAAAGG
ATTGAGGTCTTGGACAATACCCAGCAGCTTAAGATTTTGGCTGATTCCATTAACAGTGAA
ATTGGAATCCTTTGCAGTGCCCTCCAGAAAATAAAGTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 452
Molecular Weight 51861.565
Theoretical pI 6.595
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase
MSTAVLENPGLGRKLSDFGQETSYIEDNCNQNGAISLIFSLKEEVGALAKVLRLFEENDV
NLTHIESRPSRLKKDEYEFFTHLDKRSLPALTNIIKILRHDIGATVHELSRDKKKDTVPW
FPRTIQELDRFANQILSYGAELDADHPGFKDPVYRARRKQFADIAYNYRHGQPIPRVEYM
EEEKKTWGTVFKTLKSLYKTHACYEYNHIFPLLEKYCGFHEDNIPQLEDVSQFLQTCTGF
RLRPVAGLLSSRDFLGGLAFRVFHCTQYIRHGSKPMYTPEPDICHELLGHVPLFSDRSFA
QFSQEIGLASLGAPDEYIEKLATIYWFTVEFGLCKQGDSIKAYGAGLLSSFGELQYCLSE
KPKLLPLELEKTAIQNYTVTEFQPLYYVAESFNDAKEKVRNFAATIPRPFSVRYDPYTQR
IEVLDNTQQLKILADSINSEIGILCSALQKIK
GenBank ID Protein 189937
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P00439
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PH4H_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID K03020
GeneCard ID PAH
GenAtlas ID PAH
HGNC ID HGNC:8582
References
General References
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  2. Kwok SC, Ledley FD, DiLella AG, Robson KJ, Woo SL: Nucleotide sequence of a full-length complementary DNA clone and amino acid sequence of human phenylalanine hydroxylase. Biochemistry. 1985 Jan 29;24(3):556-61. [PubMed:2986678 ]
  3. Cotton RG, McAdam W, Jennings I, Morgan FJ: A monoclonal antibody to aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Identification of the epitope. Biochem J. 1988 Oct 1;255(1):193-6. [PubMed:2461704 ]
  4. Siltberg-Liberles J, Steen IH, Svebak RM, Martinez A: The phylogeny of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases revisited by characterizing phenylalanine hydroxylase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Gene. 2008 Dec 31;427(1-2):86-92. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2008.09.005. Epub 2008 Sep 16. [PubMed:18835579 ]
  5. Erlandsen H, Fusetti F, Martinez A, Hough E, Flatmark T, Stevens RC: Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human phenylalanine hydroxylase reveals the structural basis for phenylketonuria. Nat Struct Biol. 1997 Dec;4(12):995-1000. [PubMed:9406548 ]
  6. Erlandsen H, Flatmark T, Stevens RC, Hough E: Crystallographic analysis of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase catalytic domain with bound catechol inhibitors at 2.0 A resolution. Biochemistry. 1998 Nov 10;37(45):15638-46. [PubMed:9843368 ]
  7. Fusetti F, Erlandsen H, Flatmark T, Stevens RC: Structure of tetrameric human phenylalanine hydroxylase and its implications for phenylketonuria. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 3;273(27):16962-7. [PubMed:9642259 ]
  8. Erlandsen H, Bjorgo E, Flatmark T, Stevens RC: Crystal structure and site-specific mutagenesis of pterin-bound human phenylalanine hydroxylase. Biochemistry. 2000 Mar 7;39(9):2208-17. [PubMed:10694386 ]
  9. Andersen OA, Flatmark T, Hough E: High resolution crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human phenylalanine hydroxylase in its catalytically active Fe(II) form and binary complex with tetrahydrobiopterin. J Mol Biol. 2001 Nov 23;314(2):279-91. [PubMed:11718561 ]
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  11. Cotton RG: Heterogeneity of phenylketonuria at the clinical, protein and DNA levels. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1990;13(5):739-50. [PubMed:2246858 ]
  12. Eisensmith RC, Woo SL: Molecular basis of phenylketonuria and related hyperphenylalaninemias: mutations and polymorphisms in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Hum Mutat. 1992;1(1):13-23. [PubMed:1301187 ]
  13. Hoang L, Byck S, Prevost L, Scriver CR: PAH Mutation Analysis Consortium Database: a database for disease-producing and other allelic variation at the human PAH locus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996 Jan 1;24(1):127-31. [PubMed:8594560 ]
  14. Lichter-Konecki U, Konecki DS, DiLella AG, Brayton K, Marvit J, Hahn TM, Trefz FK, Woo SL: Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency caused by a single base substitution in an exon of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Biochemistry. 1988 Apr 19;27(8):2881-5. [PubMed:2840952 ]
  15. Lyonnet S, Caillaud C, Rey F, Berthelon M, Frezal J, Rey J, Munnich A: Molecular genetics of phenylketonuria in Mediterranean countries: a mutation associated with partial phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet. 1989 Apr;44(4):511-7. [PubMed:2564729 ]
  16. Hofman KJ, Antonarakis SE, Missiou-Tsangaraki S, Boehm CD, Valle D: Phenylketonuria in the Greek population. Haplotype analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and identification of a PKU mutation. Mol Biol Med. 1989 Jun;6(3):245-50. [PubMed:2615649 ]
  17. Svensson E, Andersson B, Hagenfeldt L: Two mutations within the coding sequence of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Hum Genet. 1990 Aug;85(3):300-4. [PubMed:1975559 ]
  18. Dianzani I, Forrest SM, Camaschella C, Saglio G, Ponzone A, Cotton RG: Screening for mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene from Italian patients with phenylketonuria by using the chemical cleavage method: a new splice mutation. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Mar;48(3):631-5. [PubMed:1671810 ]
  19. Hofman KJ, Steel G, Kazazian HH, Valle D: Phenylketonuria in U.S. blacks: molecular analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Apr;48(4):791-8. [PubMed:2014802 ]
  20. Okano Y, Wang T, Eisensmith RC, Longhi R, Riva E, Giovannini M, Cerone R, Romano C, Woo SL: Phenylketonuria missense mutations in the Mediterranean. Genomics. 1991 Jan;9(1):96-103. [PubMed:1672294 ]
  21. Dworniczak B, Grudda K, Stumper J, Bartholome K, Aulehla-Scholz C, Horst J: Phenylalanine hydroxylase gene: novel missense mutation in exon 7 causing severe phenylketonuria. Genomics. 1991 Jan;9(1):193-9. [PubMed:1672290 ]
  22. Konecki DS, Schlotter M, Trefz FK, Lichter-Konecki U: The identification of two mis-sense mutations at the PAH gene locus in a Turkish patient with phenylketonuria. Hum Genet. 1991 Aug;87(4):389-93. [PubMed:1679030 ]
  23. Caillaud C, Lyonnet S, Rey F, Melle D, Frebourg T, Berthelon M, Vilarinho L, Vaz Osorio R, Rey J, Munnich A: A 3-base pair in-frame deletion of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene results in a kinetic variant of phenylketonuria. J Biol Chem. 1991 May 25;266(15):9351-4. [PubMed:1709636 ]
  24. Economou-Petersen E, Henriksen KF, Guldberg P, Guttler F: Molecular basis for nonphenylketonuria hyperphenylalaninemia. Genomics. 1992 Sep;14(1):1-5. [PubMed:1358789 ]
  25. Lin CH, Hsiao KJ, Tsai TF, Chao HK, Su TS: Identification of a missense phenylketonuria mutation at codon 408 in Chinese. Hum Genet. 1992 Aug;89(6):593-6. [PubMed:1355066 ]
  26. Jaruzelska J, Melle D, Matuszak R, Borski K, Munnich A: A new 15 bp deletion in exon 11 of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in phenylketonuria. Hum Mol Genet. 1992 Dec;1(9):763-4. [PubMed:1363837 ]
  27. Desviat LR, Perez B, Ugarte M: A new PKU mutation associated with haplotype 12. Hum Mol Genet. 1992 Dec;1(9):765-6. [PubMed:1363838 ]
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  29. Abadie V, Jaruzelska J, Lyonnet S, Millasseau P, Berthelon M, Rey F, Munnich A, Rey J: Illegitimate transcription of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in lymphocytes for identification of mutations in phenylketonuria. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jan;2(1):31-4. [PubMed:8098245 ]
  30. Goebel-Schreiner B, Schreiner R: Identification of a new missense mutation in Japanese phenylketonuric patients. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(6):950-6. [PubMed:8068076 ]
  31. Guldberg P, Henriksen KF, Thony B, Blau N, Guttler F: Molecular heterogeneity of nonphenylketonuria hyperphenylalaninemia in 25 Danish patients. Genomics. 1994 May 15;21(2):453-5. [PubMed:8088845 ]
  32. Benit P, Rey F, Melle D, Munnich A, Rey J: Five novel missense mutations of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in phenylketonuria. Hum Mutat. 1994;4(3):229-31. [PubMed:7833954 ]
  33. Knappskog PM, Eiken HG, Martinez A, Bruland O, Apold J, Flatmark T: PKU mutation (D143G) associated with an apparent high residual enzyme activity: expression of a kinetic variant form of phenylalanine hydroxylase in three different systems. Hum Mutat. 1996;8(3):236-46. [PubMed:8889583 ]
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  35. Argiolas A, Bosco P, Cali F, Ceratto N, Anello G, Riva E, Biasucci G, Carducci C, Romano V: Two novel PAH gene mutations detected in Italian phenylketonuric patients. Hum Genet. 1997 Feb;99(2):275-8. [PubMed:9048935 ]
  36. Byck S, Tyfield L, Carter K, Scriver CR: Prediction of multiple hypermutable codons in the human PAH gene: codon 280 contains recurrent mutations in Quebec and other populations. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(4):316-21. [PubMed:9101291 ]
  37. Waters PJ, Parniak MA, Nowacki P, Scriver CR: In vitro expression analysis of mutations in phenylalanine hydroxylase: linking genotype to phenotype and structure to function. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(1):4-17. [PubMed:9450897 ]
  38. Bosco P, Cali F, Meli C, Mollica F, Zammarchi E, Cerone R, Vanni C, Palillo L, Greco D, Romano V: Eight new mutations of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in Italian patients with hyperphenylalaninemia. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(3):240-3. [PubMed:9521426 ]
  39. De Lucca M, Perez B, Desviat LR, Ugarte M: Molecular basis of phenylketonuria in Venezuela: presence of two novel null mutations. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(5):354-9. [PubMed:9600453 ]
  40. Mallolas J, Campistol J, Lambruschini N, Vilaseca MA, Cambra FJ, Estivill X, Mila M: Two novel mutations in exon 11 of the PAH gene (V1163del TG and P362T) associated with classic phenylketonuira and mild phenylketonuria. Mutations in brief no. 143. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(6):482. [PubMed:10200057 ]
  41. Park YS, Seoung CS, Lee SW, Oh KH, Lee DH, Yim J: Identification of three novel mutations in Korean phenylketonuria patients: R53H, N207D, and Y325X. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S121-2. [PubMed:9452061 ]
  42. Michiels L, Francois B, Raus J, Vandevyver C: Identification of seven new mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene, associated with hyperphenylalaninemia in the Belgian population. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S123-4. [PubMed:9452062 ]
  43. Popescu T, Blazkova M, Kozak L, Jebeleanu G, Popescu A: Mutation spectrum and phenylalanine hydroxylase RFLP/VNTR background in 44 Romanian phenylketonuric alleles. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(5):314-9. [PubMed:9792407 ]
  44. Waters PJ, Parniak MA, Hewson AS, Scriver CR: Alterations in protein aggregation and degradation due to mild and severe missense mutations (A104D, R157N) in the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH). Hum Mutat. 1998;12(5):344-54. [PubMed:9792411 ]
  45. Kibayashi M, Nagao M, Chiba S: Mutation analysis of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and its clinical implications in two Japanese patients with non-phenylketonuria hyperphenylalaninemia. J Hum Genet. 1998;43(4):231-6. [PubMed:9852673 ]
  46. Hennermann JB, Vetter B, Wolf C, Windt E, Buhrdel P, Seidel J, Monch E, Kulozik AE: Phenylketonuria and hyperphenylalaninemia in eastern Germany: a characteristic molecular profile and 15 novel mutations. Hum Mutat. 2000;15(3):254-60. [PubMed:10679941 ]
  47. Gjetting T, Petersen M, Guldberg P, Guttler F: Missense mutations in the N-terminal domain of human phenylalanine hydroxylase interfere with binding of regulatory phenylalanine. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jun;68(6):1353-60. Epub 2001 Apr 20. [PubMed:11326337 ]
  48. Acosta A, Silva W Jr, Carvalho T, Gomes M, Zago M: Mutations of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene in Brazilian patients with phenylketonuria. Hum Mutat. 2001 Feb;17(2):122-30. [PubMed:11180595 ]
  49. Yang Y, Drummond-Borg M, Garcia-Heras J: Molecular analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) in newborns from Texas. Hum Mutat. 2001 Jun;17(6):523. [PubMed:11385716 ]
  50. Gjetting T, Romstad A, Haavik J, Knappskog PM, Acosta AX, Silva WA Jr, Zago MA, Guldberg P, Guttler F: A phenylalanine hydroxylase amino acid polymorphism with implications for molecular diagnostics. Mol Genet Metab. 2001 Jul;73(3):280-4. [PubMed:11461196 ]