You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00360
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5596
Name Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3
Synonyms
  1. 17-beta-HSD 5
  2. 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5
  3. 3-alpha-HSD type 2
  4. 3-alpha-HSD type II, brain
  5. 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2
  6. Chlordecone reductase homolog HAKRb
  7. DD-3
  8. DD3
  9. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 3
  10. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase type I
  11. HA1753
  12. Indanol dehydrogenase
  13. PGFS
  14. Prostaglandin F synthase
  15. Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase 5
  16. Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase
Gene Name AKR1C3
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ) and the oxidation of 9-alpha,11-beta-PGF2 to PGD2. Functions as a bi-directional 3-alpha-, 17-beta- and 20-alpha HSD. Can interconvert active androgens, estrogens and progestins with their cognate inactive metabolites. Preferentially transforms androstenedione (4-dione) to testosterone.
Pathways
  • Acetaminophen Action Pathway
  • Acetylsalicylic Acid Action Pathway
  • Antipyrine Action Pathway
  • Antrafenine Action Pathway
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Arachidonic Acid Metabolism
  • Bromfenac Action Pathway
  • Carprofen Action Pathway
  • Celecoxib Action Pathway
  • Diclofenac Action Pathway
  • Diflunisal Action Pathway
  • Doxorubicin Metabolism Pathway
  • Etodolac Action Pathway
  • Etoricoxib Action Pathway
  • Fenoprofen Action Pathway
  • Flurbiprofen Action Pathway
  • Ibuprofen Action Pathway
  • Indomethacin Action Pathway
  • Ketoprofen Action Pathway
  • Ketorolac Action Pathway
  • Leukotriene C4 Synthesis Deficiency
  • Lornoxicam Action Pathway
  • Lumiracoxib Action Pathway
  • Magnesium salicylate Action Pathway
  • Mefenamic Acid Action Pathway
  • Meloxicam Action Pathway
  • Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450
  • Nabumetone Action Pathway
  • Naproxen Action Pathway
  • Nepafenac Action Pathway
  • Oxaprozin Action Pathway
  • Phenylbutazone Action Pathway
  • Piroxicam Action Pathway
  • Rofecoxib Action Pathway
  • Salicylate-sodium Action Pathway
  • Salicylic Acid Action Pathway
  • Salsalate Action Pathway
  • Steroid hormone biosynthesis
  • Sulindac Action Pathway
  • Suprofen Action Pathway
  • Tenoxicam Action Pathway
  • Tiaprofenic Acid Action Pathway
  • Tolmetin Action Pathway
  • Trisalicylate-choline Action Pathway
  • Valdecoxib Action Pathway
Reactions
trans-1,2-Dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol + NADP → Pyrocatechol + NADPH details
A 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid + NAD(P)(+) → a 3-oxosteroid + NAD(P)H details
(5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,11-alpha,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate + NADP → (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9-alpha,15-dihydroxy-11-oxoprosta-5,13-dienoate + NADPH details
Testosterone + NAD → Androstenedione + NADH details
Testosterone + NADP → Androstenedione + NADPH details
Indan-1-ol + NAD(P)(+) → Indanone + NAD(P)H details
5alpha-Dihydrodeoxycorticosterone + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone + NADP details
5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → Allopregnanolone + NADP details
5alpha-Pregnan-20alpha-ol-3-one + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion → 5alpha-Pregnane-3alpha,20alpha-diol + NADP details
GO Classification
Biological Process
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process
cellular response to calcium ion
keratinocyte differentiation
positive regulation of cell proliferation
response to nutrient
prostaglandin metabolic process
daunorubicin metabolic process
doxorubicin metabolic process
farnesol catabolic process
cellular response to jasmonic acid stimulus
progesterone metabolic process
retinal metabolic process
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling cascade
cellular response to cadmium ion
cellular response to corticosteroid stimulus
cellular response to prostaglandin stimulus
cellular response to reactive oxygen species
cellular response to starvation
male gonad development
multicellular organismal macromolecule metabolic process
negative regulation of retinoic acid biosynthetic process
positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process
protein import into nucleus, translocation
regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway
regulation of testosterone biosynthetic process
renal absorption
testosterone biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
cytoplasm
nucleus
Function
catalytic activity
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase activity
retinol dehydrogenase activity
geranylgeranyl reductase activity
indanol dehydrogenase activity
retinal dehydrogenase activity
ketosteroid monooxygenase activity
oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH, quinone or similar compound as acceptor
phenanthrene 9,10-monooxygenase activity
trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
androsterone dehydrogenase (A-specific) activity
prostaglandin F receptor activity
15-hydroxyprostaglandin-D dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity
androsterone dehydrogenase activity
delta4-3-oxosteroid 5beta-reductase activity
dihydrotestosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase activity
ketoreductase activity
prostaglandin D2 11-ketoreductase activity
prostaglandin-F synthase activity
testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity
testosterone dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 10
Locus 10p15-p14
SNPs AKR1C3
Gene Sequence
>972 bp
ATGGATTCCAAACAGCAGTGTGTAAAGCTAAATGATGGCCACTTCATGCCTGTATTGGGA
TTTGGCACCTATGCACCTCCAGAGGTTCCGAGAAGTAAAGCTTTGGAGGTCACAAAATTA
GCAATAGAAGCTGGGTTCCGCCATATAGATTCTGCTCATTTATACAATAATGAGGAGCAG
GTTGGACTGGCCATCCGAAGCAAGATTGCAGATGGCAGTGTGAAGAGAGAAGACATATTC
TACACTTCAAAGCTTTGGTCCACTTTTCATCGACCAGAGTTGGTCCGACCAGCCTTGGAA
AACTCACTGAAAAAAGCTCAATTGGACTATGTTGACCTCTATCTTATTCATTCTCCAATG
TCTCTAAAGCCAGGTGAGGAACTTTCACCAACAGATGAAAATGGAAAAGTAATATTTGAC
ATAGTGGATCTCTGTACCACCTGGGAGGCCATGGAGAAGTGTAAGGATGCAGGATTGGCC
AAGTCCATTGGGGTGTCAAACTTCAACCGCAGGCAGCTGGAGATGATCCTCAACAAGCCA
GGACTCAAGTACAAGCCTGTCTGCAACCAGGTAGAATGTCATCCGTATTTCAACCGGAGT
AAATTGCTAGATTTCTGCAAGTCGAAAGATATTGTTCTGGTTGCCTATAGTGCTCTGGGA
TCTCAACGAGACAAACGATGGGTGGACCCGAACTCCCCGGTGCTCTTGGAGGACCCAGTC
CTTTGTGCCTTGGCAAAAAAGCACAAGCGAACCCCAGCCCTGATTGCCCTGCGCTACCAG
CTGCAGCGTGGGGTTGTGGTCCTGGCCAAGAGCTACAATGAGCAGCGCATCAGACAGAAC
GTGCAGGTTTTTGAGTTCCAGTTGACTGCAGAGGACATGAAAGCCATAGATGGCCTAGAC
AGAAATCTCCACTATTTTAACAGTGATAGTTTTGCTAGCCACCCTAATTATCCATATTCA
GATGAATATTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 323
Molecular Weight 36866.91
Theoretical pI 7.948
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3
MDSKHQCVKLNDGHFMPVLGFGTYAPPEVPRSKALEVTKLAIEAGFRHIDSAHLYNNEEQ
VGLAIRSKIADGSVKREDIFYTSKLWSTFHRPELVRPALENSLKKAQLDYVDLYLIHSPM
SLKPGEELSPTDENGKVIFDIVDLCTTWEAMEKCKDAGLAKSIGVSNFNRRQLEMILNKP
GLKYKPVCNQVECHPYFNRSKLLDFCKSKDIVLVAYSALGSQRDKRWVDPNSPVLLEDPV
LCALAKKHKRTPALIALRYQLQRGVVVLAKSYNEQRIRQNVQVFEFQLTAEDMKAIDGLD
RNLHYFNSDSFASHPNYPYSDEY
GenBank ID Protein 6624211
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P42330
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name AK1C3_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AB018580
GeneCard ID AKR1C3
GenAtlas ID AKR1C3
HGNC ID HGNC:386
References
General References
  1. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR, Rogers J: The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10. Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):375-81. [PubMed:15164054 ]
  4. Qin KN, New MI, Cheng KC: Molecular cloning of multiple cDNAs encoding human enzymes structurally related to 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993 Dec;46(6):673-9. [PubMed:8274401 ]
  5. Khanna M, Qin KN, Wang RW, Cheng KC: Substrate specificity, gene structure, and tissue-specific distribution of multiple human 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. J Biol Chem. 1995 Aug 25;270(34):20162-8. [PubMed:7650035 ]
  6. Khanna M, Qin KN, Cheng KC: Distribution of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rat brain and molecular cloning of multiple cDNAs encoding structurally related proteins in humans. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1995 Jun;53(1-6):41-6. [PubMed:7626489 ]
  7. Nishizawa M, Nakajima T, Yasuda K, Kanzaki H, Sasaguri Y, Watanabe K, Ito S: Close kinship of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene with three aldo-keto reductase genes. Genes Cells. 2000 Feb;5(2):111-25. [PubMed:10672042 ]
  8. Nagase T, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Sazuka T, Seki N, Sato S, Tabata S, Ishikawa K, Kawarabayasi Y, Kotani H, et al.: Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. III. The coding sequences of 40 new genes (KIAA0081-KIAA0120) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from human cell line KG-1. DNA Res. 1995;2(1):37-43. [PubMed:7788527 ]
  9. Lin HK, Jez JM, Schlegel BP, Peehl DM, Pachter JA, Penning TM: Expression and characterization of recombinant type 2 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) from human prostate: demonstration of bifunctional 3 alpha/17 beta-HSD activity and cellular distribution. Mol Endocrinol. 1997 Dec;11(13):1971-84. [PubMed:9415401 ]
  10. Suzuki-Yamamoto T, Nishizawa M, Fukui M, Okuda-Ashitaka E, Nakajima T, Ito S, Watanabe K: cDNA cloning, expression and characterization of human prostaglandin F synthase. FEBS Lett. 1999 Dec 3;462(3):335-40. [PubMed:10622721 ]
  11. Griffin LD, Mellon SH: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors directly alter activity of neurosteroidogenic enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Nov 9;96(23):13512-7. [PubMed:10557352 ]
  12. Penning TM, Burczynski ME, Jez JM, Lin HK, Ma H, Moore M, Ratnam K, Palackal N: Structure-function aspects and inhibitor design of type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001 Jan 22;171(1-2):137-49. [PubMed:11165022 ]
  13. Dufort I, Rheault P, Huang XF, Soucy P, Luu-The V: Characteristics of a highly labile human type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Endocrinology. 1999 Feb;140(2):568-74. [PubMed:9927279 ]
  14. Komoto J, Yamada T, Watanabe K, Takusagawa F: Crystal structure of human prostaglandin F synthase (AKR1C3). Biochemistry. 2004 Mar 2;43(8):2188-98. [PubMed:14979715 ]
  15. Lovering AL, Ride JP, Bunce CM, Desmond JC, Cummings SM, White SA: Crystal structures of prostaglandin D(2) 11-ketoreductase (AKR1C3) in complex with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs flufenamic acid and indomethacin. Cancer Res. 2004 Mar 1;64(5):1802-10. [PubMed:14996743 ]
  16. Qiu W, Zhou M, Labrie F, Lin SX: Crystal structures of the multispecific 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5: critical androgen regulation in human peripheral tissues. Mol Endocrinol. 2004 Jul;18(7):1798-807. Epub 2004 Apr 15. [PubMed:15087468 ]