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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00389
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5626
  • HMDBP04791
Name Trifunctional enzyme subunit alpha, mitochondrial
Synonyms
  1. 78 kDa gastrin-binding protein
  2. Long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase
  3. Long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase
  4. TP-alpha
Gene Name HADHA
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function Bifunctional subunit.
Pathways
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (I)
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (II)
  • Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy
  • fatty acid beta-oxidation
  • Fatty acid elongation
  • Fatty Acid Elongation In Mitochondria
  • Fatty Acid Metabolism
  • fatty acid metabolism
  • Glutaric Aciduria Type I
  • Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)
  • Long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD)
  • Lysine degradation
  • Medium chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)
  • Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty Acids
  • Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Medium Chain Saturated Fatty Acids
  • Propanoate metabolism
  • Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)
  • Trifunctional protein deficiency
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
  • Valproic Acid Metabolism Pathway
  • Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)
Reactions
(3S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA → trans-2(or 3)-enoyl-CoA + Water details
A long-chain (S)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA + NAD → a long-chain 3-oxoacyl-CoA + NADH details
(3S)-3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA + NAD → 3-Oxoacyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
(3S)-3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA → trans-2,3-Dehydroacyl-CoA + Water details
3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA → (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + Water details
3-Hydroxypropionyl-CoA → Acrylyl-CoA + Water details
3-Hydroxyisovaleryl-CoA → 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA + Water details
(S)-3-Hydroxydodecanoyl-CoA → (2E)-Dodecenoyl-CoA + Water details
2-Methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA → Tiglyl-CoA + Water details
Methacrylyl-CoA + Water → (S)-3-Hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA details
(S)-3-Hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoA + NAD → 3-Oxohexadecanoyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
(S)-3-Hydroxyhexadecanoyl-CoA → (2E)-Hexadecenoyl-CoA + Water details
(S)-3-Hydroxytetradecanoyl-CoA + NAD → 3-Oxotetradecanoyl-CoA + NADH details
(S)-3-Hydroxytetradecanoyl-CoA → (2E)-Tetradecenoyl-CoA + Water details
(S)-3-Hydroxydodecanoyl-CoA + NAD → 3-Oxododecanoyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
(S)-Hydroxydecanoyl-CoA + NAD → 3-Oxodecanoyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
(S)-Hydroxydecanoyl-CoA → (2E)-Decenoyl-CoA + Water details
(S)-Hydroxyoctanoyl-CoA + NAD → 3-Oxooctanoyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
(S)-Hydroxyoctanoyl-CoA → (2E)-Octenoyl-CoA + Water details
(S)-Hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA + NAD → 3-Oxohexanoyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
(S)-Hydroxyhexanoyl-CoA → trans-2-Hexenoyl-CoA + Water details
(E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + Water → 3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA details
5-Carboxy-2-pentenoyl-CoA + Water → (3S)-3-Hydroxyadipyl-CoA details
(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z,21Z)-3-Hydroxytetracosahexa-6,9,12,15,18,21-enoyl-CoA → Trans-2-all-cis-6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosaheptaenoyl-CoA + Water details
(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z,21Z)-3-Hydroxytetracosahexa-6,9,12,15,18,21-enoyl-CoA + NAD → (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z,21Z)-3-Oxotetracosahexa-6,9,12,15,18,21-enoyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z)-3-Hydroxytetracosapenta-6,9,12,15,18-enoyl-CoA → (2E,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z)-Tetracosahexa-2,6,9,12,15,18-enoyl-CoA + Water details
(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z)-3-Hydroxytetracosapenta-6,9,12,15,18-enoyl-CoA + NAD → (6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z)-3-Oxotetracosapenta-6,9,12,15,18-enoyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
GO Classification
Biological Process
response to insulin stimulus
response to drug
cardiolipin acyl-chain remodeling
glycerophospholipid biosynthetic process
fatty acid beta-oxidation
Cellular Component
nucleolus
mitochondrial nucleoid
mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation multienzyme complex
mitochondrial inner membrane
Component
mitochondrion
macromolecular complex
protein complex
organelle
membrane-bounded organelle
intracellular membrane-bounded organelle
fatty acid beta-oxidation multienzyme complex
Function
binding
catalytic activity
lyase activity
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-oh group of donors, nad or nadp as acceptor
coenzyme binding
carbon-oxygen lyase activity
hydro-lyase activity
cofactor binding
3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase activity
enoyl-coa hydratase activity
oxidoreductase activity, acting on ch-oh group of donors
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
NAD binding
long-chain-enoyl-CoA hydratase activity
fatty-acyl-CoA binding
3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
enoyl-CoA hydratase activity
acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity
long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Process
metabolic process
fatty acid catabolic process
fatty acid beta-oxidation
cellular metabolic process
organic acid metabolic process
oxoacid metabolic process
carboxylic acid metabolic process
monocarboxylic acid metabolic process
fatty acid metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 2
Locus 2p23
SNPs HADHA
Gene Sequence
>2292 bp
ATGGTGGCCTGCCGGGCGATTGGCATCCTCAGCCGCTTTTCTGCCTTCAGGATCCTCCGC
TCCCGAGGTTATATATGCCGCAATTTTACAGGGTCTTCTGCTTTGCTGACCAGAACCCAT
ATTAACTATGGAGTCAAAGGGGATGTGGCAGTTGTTCGAATTAACTCTCCCAATTCAAAG
GTAAATACACTGAGTAAAGAGCTACATTCAGAGTTCTCAGAAGTTATGAATGAAATCTGG
GCTAGTGATCAAATCAGAAGTGCCGTCCTTATCTCATCAAAGCCAGGCTGCTTTATTGCA
GGTGCTGATATCAACATGTTAGCCGCTTGCAAGACCCTTCAAGAAGTAACACAGCTATCA
CAAGAAGCACAGAGAATAGTTGAGAAACTTGAAAAGTCCACAAAGCCTATTGTGGCTGCC
ATCAATGGATCCTGCCTGGGAGGAGGACTTGAGGTTGCCATTTCATGCCAATATAGAATA
GCAACAAAAGACAGAAAAACAGTATTAGGTACCCCTGAAGTTTTGCTGGGGGCCTTACCA
GGAGCAGGAGGCACACAAAGGCTGCCCAAAATGGTGGGTGTGCCTGCTGCTTTGGACATG
ATGCTGACTGGTAGAAGCATTCGTGCAGACAGGGCAAAGAAAATGGGACTGGTTGACCAA
CTGGTGGAACCCCTGGGACCAGGACTAAAACCTCCAGAGGAACGGACAATAGAATACCTA
GAAGAAGTTGCAATTACTTTTGCCAAAGGACTAGCTGATAAGAAGATCTCTCCAAAGAGA
GACAAGGGATTGGTGGAAAAATTGACAGCGTATGCCATGACTATTCCATTTGTCAGGCAA
CAGGTTTACAAAAAAGTGGAAGAAAAAGTGCGAAAGCAGACTAAAGGCCTTTATCCTGCA
CCTCTGAAAATAATTGATGTGGTAAAGACTGGAATTGAGCAAGGGAGTGATGCCGGTTAT
CTCTGTGAATCTCAGAAATTTGGAGAGCTTGTAATGACCAAAGAATCAAAGGCCTTGATG
GGACTCTACCATGGTCAGGTCCTGTGCAAGAAGAATAAATTTGGAGCTCCACAGAAGGAT
GTTAAGCATCTGGCTATTCTTGGTGCAGGGCTGATGGGAGCAGGCATCGCCCAAGTCTCC
GTGGATAAGGGGCTAAAGACTATACTTAAAGATGCCACCCTCACTGCGCTAGACCGAGGA
CAGCAACAAGTGTTCAAAGGATTGAATGACAAAGTGAAGAAGAAAGCTCTAACATCATTT
GAAAGGGATTCCATCTTCAGCAACTTGACTGGGCAGCTTGATTACCAAGGTTTTGAAAAG
GCCGACATGGTGATTGAAGCTGTGTTTGAGGACCTTAGTCTTAAGCACAGAGTGCTAAAG
GAAGTAGAAGCGGTGATTCCAGATCACTGTATCTTTGCCAGTAACACATCTGCTCTCCCA
ATCAGTGAAATCGCTGCTGTCAGCAAAAGACCTGAGAAGGTGATTGGCATGCACTACTTC
TCTCCCGTGGACAAGATGCAGCTGCTGGAGATTATCACGACCGAGAAAACTTCCAAAGAC
ACCAGTGCTTCAGCTGTAGCAGTTGGTCTCAAGCAGGGGAAGGTCATCATTGTGGTTAAG
GATGGACCTGGCTTCTATACTACCAGGTGTCTTGCGCCCATGATGTCTGAAGTCATCCGA
ATCCTCCAGGAAGGAGTTGACCCGAAGAAGCTGGATTCCCTGACCACAAGCTTTGGCTTT
CCTGTGGGTGCCGCCACACTGGTGGATGAAGTTGGTGTGGATGTAGCGAAACATGTGGCG
GAAGATCTGGGCAAAGTCTTTGGGGAGCGGTTTGGAGGTGGAAACCCAGAACTGCTGACA
CAGATGGTGTCCAAGGGCTTCCTAGGTCGTAAATCTGGGAAGGGCTTTTACATCTATCAG
GAGGGTGTGAAGAGGAAGGATTTGAATTCTGACATGGATAGTATTTTAGCGAGTCTGAAG
CTGCCTCCTAAGTCTGAAGTCTCATCAGACGAAGACATCCAGTTCCGCCTGGTGACAAGA
TTTGTGAATGAGGCAGTCATGTGCCTGCAAGAGGGGATCTTGGCCACACCTGCAGAGGGA
GACATCGGAGCCGTCTTTGGGCTTGGCTTCCCGCCTTGTCTGGGAGGGCCTTTCCGCTTT
GTGGATCTGTATGGCGCCCAGAAGATAGTGGACCGGCTCAAGAAATATGAAGCTGCCTAT
GGAAAACAGTTCACCCCATGCCAGCTGCTAGCTGACCATGCTAACAGCCCTAACAAGAAG
TTCTACCAGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 763
Molecular Weight 82998.97
Theoretical pI 9.048
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Trifunctional enzyme subunit alpha, mitochondrial
MVACRAIGILSRFSAFRILRSRGYICRNFTGSSALLTRTHINYGVKGDVAVVRINSPNSK
VNTLSKELHSEFSEVMNEIWASDQIRSAVLISSKPGCFIAGADINMLAACKTLQEVTQLS
QEAQRIVEKLEKSTKPIVAAINGSCLGGGLEVAISCQYRIATKDRKTVLGTPEVLLGALP
GAGGTQRLPKMVGVPAALDMMLTGRSIRADRAKKMGLVDQLVEPLGPGLKPPEERTIEYL
EEVAITFAKGLADKKISPKRDKGLVEKLTAYAMTIPFVRQQVYKKVEEKVRKQTKGLYPA
PLKIIDVVKTGIEQGSDAGYLCESQKFGELVMTKESKALMGLYHGQVLCKKNKFGAPQKD
VKHLAILGAGLMGAGIAQVSVDKGLKTILKDATLTALDRGQQQVFKGLNDKVKKKALTSF
ERDSIFSNLTGQLDYQGFEKADMVIEAVFEDLSLKHRVLKEVEAVIPDHCIFASNTSALP
ISEIAAVSKRPEKVIGMHYFSPVDKMQLLEIITTEKTSKDTSASAVAVGLKQGKVIIVVK
DGPGFYTTRCLAPMMSEVIRILQEGVDPKKLDSLTTSFGFPVGAATLVDEVGVDVAKHVA
EDLGKVFGERFGGGNPELLTQMVSKGFLGRKSGKGFYIYQEGVKRKDLNSDMDSILASLK
LPPKSEVSSDEDIQFRLVTRFVNEAVMCLQEGILATPAEGDIGAVFGLGFPPCLGGPFRF
VDLYGAQKIVDRLKKYEAAYGKQFTPCQLLADHANSPNKKFYQ
GenBank ID Protein 189053609
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P40939
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ECHA_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID AK313027
GeneCard ID HADHA
GenAtlas ID HADHA
HGNC ID HGNC:4801
References
General References
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  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  4. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M: Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. Cell. 2006 Nov 3;127(3):635-48. [PubMed:17081983 ]
  5. Kamijo T, Aoyama T, Komiyama A, Hashimoto T: Structural analysis of cDNAs for subunits of human mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation trifunctional protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Mar 15;199(2):818-25. [PubMed:8135828 ]
  6. Kamijo T, Wanders RJ, Saudubray JM, Aoyama T, Komiyama A, Hashimoto T: Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency. Catalytic heterogeneity of the mutant enzyme in two patients. J Clin Invest. 1994 Apr;93(4):1740-7. [PubMed:8163672 ]
  7. Zhang QX, Baldwin GS: Structures of the human cDNA and gene encoding the 78 kDa gastrin-binding protein and of a related pseudogene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Oct 18;1219(2):567-75. [PubMed:7918661 ]
  8. IJlst L, Wanders RJ, Ushikubo S, Kamijo T, Hashimoto T: Molecular basis of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of the major disease-causing mutation in the alpha-subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Dec 8;1215(3):347-50. [PubMed:7811722 ]
  9. Sims HF, Brackett JC, Powell CK, Treem WR, Hale DE, Bennett MJ, Gibson B, Shapiro S, Strauss AW: The molecular basis of pediatric long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with maternal acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jan 31;92(3):841-5. [PubMed:7846063 ]
  10. IJlst L, Ruiter JP, Hoovers JM, Jakobs ME, Wanders RJ: Common missense mutation G1528C in long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Characterization and expression of the mutant protein, mutation analysis on genomic DNA and chromosomal localization of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein alpha subunit gene. J Clin Invest. 1996 Aug 15;98(4):1028-33. [PubMed:8770876 ]
  11. IJlst L, Oostheim W, Ruiter JP, Wanders RJ: Molecular basis of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of two new mutations. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1997 Jul;20(3):420-2. [PubMed:9266371 ]
  12. Ibdah JA, Tein I, Dionisi-Vici C, Bennett MJ, IJlst L, Gibson B, Wanders RJ, Strauss AW: Mild trifunctional protein deficiency is associated with progressive neuropathy and myopathy and suggests a novel genotype-phenotype correlation. J Clin Invest. 1998 Sep 15;102(6):1193-9. [PubMed:9739053 ]