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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00406
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5643
Name Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
Synonyms
  1. Noradrenaline N-methyltransferase
  2. PNMTase
Gene Name PNMT
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in methyltransferase activity
Specific Function Converts noradrenaline to adrenaline.
Pathways
  • (R)-adrenaline biosynthesis
  • Alkaptonuria
  • Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase Deficiency
  • Catecholamine Biosynthesis
  • Disulfiram Action Pathway
  • Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency
  • Hawkinsinuria
  • Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)
  • Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency
  • Tyrosine Metabolism
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Tyrosinemia Type I
  • Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newborn
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + 2-Hydroxyphenethylamine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + N-Methylphenylethanolamine details
S-Adenosylmethionine + Norepinephrine → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Epinephrine details
GO Classification
Biological Process
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
epinephrine biosynthetic process
catecholamine biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
Function
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring one-carbon groups
methyltransferase activity
Molecular Function
phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase activity
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 17
Locus 17q
SNPs PNMT
Gene Sequence
>849 bp
ATGAGCGGCGCAGACCGTAGCCCCAATGCGGGCGCAGCCCCTGACTCGGCCCCGGGCCAG
GCGGCGGTGGCTTCGGCCTACCAGCGCTTCGAGCCGCGCGCCTACCTCCGCAACAACTAC
GCGCCCCCTCGCGGGGACCTGTGCAACCCGAACGGCGTCGGGCCGTGGAAGCTGCGCTGC
TTGGCGCAGACCTTCGCCACCGGTGAAGTGTCCGGACGCACCCTCATCGACATTGGTTCA
GGCCCCACCGTGTACCAGCTGCTCAGTGCCTGCAGCCACTTTGAGGACATCACCATGACA
GATTTCCTGGAGGTCAACCGCCAGGAGCTGGGGCGCTGGCTGCAGGAGGAGCCGGGGGCC
TTCAACTGGAGCATGTACAGCCAACATGCCTGCCTCATTGAGGGCAAGGGGGAATGCTGG
CAGGATAAGGAGCGCCAGCTGCGAGCCAGGGTGAAACGGGTCCTGCCCATCGACGTGCAC
CAGCCCCAGCCCCTGGGTGCTGGGAGCCCAGCTCCCCTGCCTGCTGACGCCCTGGTCTCT
GCCTTCTGCTTGGAGGCTGTGAGCCCAGATCTTGCCAGCTTTCAGCGGGCCCTGGACCAC
ATCACCACGCTGCTGAGGCCTGGGGGGCACCTCCTCCTCATCGGGGCCCTGGAGGAGTCG
TGGTACCTGGCTGGGGAGGCCAGGCTGACGGTGGTGCCAGTGTCTGAGGAGGAGGTGAGG
GAGGCCCTGGTGCGTAGTGGCTACAAGGTCCGGGACCTCCGCACCTATATCATGCCTGCC
CACCTTCAGACAGGCGTAGATGATGTCAAGGGCGTCTTCTTCGCCTGGGCTCAGAAGGTT
GGGCTGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 282
Molecular Weight 30854.745
Theoretical pI 6.072
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
MSGADRSPNAGAAPDSAPGQAAVASAYQRFEPRAYLRNNYAPPRGDLCNPNGVGPWKLRC
LAQTFATGEVSGRTLIDIGSGPTVYQLLSACSHFEDITMTDFLEVNRQELGRWLQEEPGA
FNWSMYSQHACLIEGKGECWQDKERQLRARVKRVLPIDVHQPQPLGAGSPAPLPADALVS
AFCLEAVSPDLASFQRALDHITTLLRPGGHLLLIGALEESWYLAGEARLTVVPVSEEEVR
EALVRSGYKVRDLRTYIMPAHLQTGVDDVKGVFFAWAQKVGL
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P11086
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PNMT_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID J03727
GeneCard ID PNMT
GenAtlas ID PNMT
HGNC ID HGNC:9160
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Kaneda N, Ichinose H, Kobayashi K, Oka K, Kishi F, Nakazawa A, Kurosawa Y, Fujita K, Nagatsu T: Molecular cloning of cDNA and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, the enzyme for epinephrine biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1988 Jun 5;263(16):7672-7. [PubMed:3372503 ]
  3. Baetge EE, Behringer RR, Messing A, Brinster RL, Palmiter RD: Transgenic mice express the human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene in adrenal medulla and retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 May;85(10):3648-52. [PubMed:2835776 ]
  4. Martin JL, Begun J, McLeish MJ, Caine JM, Grunewald GL: Getting the adrenaline going: crystal structure of the adrenaline-synthesizing enzyme PNMT. Structure. 2001 Oct;9(10):977-85. [PubMed:11591352 ]
  5. Gee CL, Tyndall JD, Grunewald GL, Wu Q, McLeish MJ, Martin JL: Mode of binding of methyl acceptor substrates to the adrenaline-synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase: implications for catalysis. Biochemistry. 2005 Dec 27;44(51):16875-85. [PubMed:16363801 ]
  6. Grunewald GL, Seim MR, Regier RC, Martin JL, Gee CL, Drinkwater N, Criscione KR: Comparison of the binding of 3-fluoromethyl-7-sulfonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines with their isosteric sulfonamides to the active site of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. J Med Chem. 2006 Sep 7;49(18):5424-33. [PubMed:16942016 ]
  7. Gee CL, Drinkwater N, Tyndall JD, Grunewald GL, Wu Q, McLeish MJ, Martin JL: Enzyme adaptation to inhibitor binding: a cryptic binding site in phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. J Med Chem. 2007 Oct 4;50(20):4845-53. Epub 2007 Sep 11. [PubMed:17845018 ]
  8. Ji Y, Salavaggione OE, Wang L, Adjei AA, Eckloff B, Wieben ED, Weinshilboum RM: Human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase pharmacogenomics: gene re-sequencing and functional genomics. J Neurochem. 2005 Dec;95(6):1766-76. Epub 2005 Nov 8. [PubMed:16277617 ]