You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00664
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5937
  • HMDBP03749
Name Adenosine deaminase
Synonyms
  1. Adenosine aminohydrolase
Gene Name ADA
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in deaminase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine and 2-deoxyadenosine. Plays an important role in purine metabolism and in adenosine homeostasis. Modulates signaling by extracellular adenosine, and so contributes indirectly to cellular signaling events. Acts as a positive regulator of T-cell coactivation, by binding DPP4. Its interaction with DPP4 regulates lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion.
Pathways
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)
  • Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
  • Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency
  • AICA-Ribosiduria
  • Azathioprine Action Pathway
  • Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller Syndrome
  • Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)
  • Mercaptopurine Action Pathway
  • Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome
  • Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
  • Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency
  • Primary immunodeficiency
  • Purine Metabolism
  • Purine metabolism
  • Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency
  • Thioguanine Action Pathway
  • Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)
  • Xanthinuria type I
  • Xanthinuria type II
Reactions
Adenosine + Water → Inosine + Ammonia details
Deoxyadenosine + Water → Deoxyinosine + Ammonia details
GO Classification
Biological Process
negative regulation of inflammatory response
cell adhesion
liver development
adenosine catabolic process
aging
dATP catabolic process
deoxyadenosine catabolic process
embryonic digestive tract development
germinal center B cell differentiation
histamine secretion
hypoxanthine salvage
inosine biosynthetic process
lung alveolus development
negative regulation of adenosine receptor signaling pathway
negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, non-REM sleep
negative regulation of leukocyte migration
negative regulation of mature B cell apoptotic process
negative regulation of mucus secretion
negative regulation of penile erection
negative regulation of thymocyte apoptotic process
Peyer's patch development
placenta development
positive regulation of alpha-beta T cell differentiation
positive regulation of B cell proliferation
positive regulation of calcium-mediated signaling
positive regulation of germinal center formation
positive regulation of heart rate
positive regulation of smooth muscle contraction
positive regulation of T cell differentiation in thymus
positive regulation of T cell receptor signaling pathway
purine nucleotide salvage
purine ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process
regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin
response to hydrogen peroxide
response to hypoxia
response to morphine
T cell activation
trophectodermal cell differentiation
xanthine biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
cell junction
lysosome
neuronal cell body
extracellular space
cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle lumen
dendrite cytoplasm
external side of plasma membrane
Function
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in cyclic amidines
deaminase activity
adenosine deaminase activity
Molecular Function
metal ion binding
zinc ion binding
adenosine deaminase activity
purine nucleoside binding
Process
purine nucleotide metabolic process
purine nucleotide biosynthetic process
metabolic process
nitrogen compound metabolic process
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process
nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolic process
nucleoside phosphate metabolic process
nucleotide metabolic process
purine nucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process
purine ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cell membrane
  2. Cytoplasm
  3. Peripheral membrane protein
  4. Extracellular side
  5. Cell junction
  6. Cytoplasmic vesicle lumen
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 20
Locus 20q13.12
SNPs ADA
Gene Sequence
>1092 bp
ATGGCCCAGACGCCCGCCTTCGACAAGCCCAAAGTAGAACTGCATGTCCACCTAGACGGA
TCCATCAAGCCTGAAACCATCTTATACTATGGCAGGAGGAGAGGGATCGCCCTCCCAGCT
AACACAGCAGAGGGGCTGCTGAACGTCATTGGCATGGACAAGCCGCTCACCCTTCCAGAC
TTCCTGGCCAAGTTTGACTACTACATGCCTGCTATCGCGGGCTGCCGGGAGGCTATCAAA
AGGATCGCCTATGAGTTTGTAGAGATGAAGGCCAAAGAGGGCGTGGTGTATGTGGAGGTG
CGGTACAGTCCGCACCTGCTGGCCAACTCCAAAGTGGAGCCAATCCCCTGGAACCAGGCT
GAAGGGGACCTCACCCCAGACGAGGTGGTGGCCCTAGTGGGCCAGGGCCTGCAGGAGGGG
GAGCGAGACTTCGGGGTCAAGGCCCGGTCCATCCTGTGCTGCATGCGCCACCAGCCCAAC
TGGTCCCCCAAGGTGGTGGAGCTGTGTAAGAAGTACCAGCAGCAGACCGTGGTGGCCATT
GACCTGGCTGGAGATGAGACCATCCCAGGAAGCAGCCTCTTGCCTGGACATGTCCAGGCC
TACCAGGAGGCTGTGAAGAGCGGCATTCACCGTACTGTCCACGCCGGGGAGGTGGGCTCG
GCCGAAGTAGTAAAAGAGGCTGTGGACATACTCAAGACAGAGCGGCTGGGACACGGCTAC
CACACCCTGGAAGACCAGGCCCTTTATAACAGGCTGCGGCAGGAAAACATGCACTTCGAG
ATCTGCCCCTGGTCCAGCTACCTCACTGGTGCCTGGAAGCCGGACACGGAGCATGCAGTC
ATTCGGCTCAAAAATGACCAGGCTAACTACTCGCTCAACACAGATGACCCGCTCATCTTC
AAGTCCACCCTGGACACTGATTACCAGATGACCAAACGGGACATGGGCTTTACTGAAGAG
GAGTTTAAAAGGCTGAACATCAATGCGGCCAAATCTAGTTTCCTCCCAGAAGATGAAAAG
AGGGAGCTTCTCGACCTGCTCTATAAAGCCTATGGGATGCCACCTTCAGCCTCTGCAGGG
CAGAACCTCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 363
Molecular Weight 40764.13
Theoretical pI 5.944
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Adenosine deaminase
MAQTPAFDKPKVELHVHLDGSIKPETILYYGRRRGIALPANTAEGLLNVIGMDKPLTLPD
FLAKFDYYMPAIAGCREAIKRIAYEFVEMKAKEGVVYVEVRYSPHLLANSKVEPIPWNQA
EGDLTPDEVVALVGQGLQEGERDFGVKARSILCCMRHQPNWSPKVVELCKKYQQQTVVAI
DLAGDETIPGSSLLPGHVQAYQEAVKSGIHRTVHAGEVGSAEVVKEAVDILKTERLGHGY
HTLEDQALYNRLRQENMHFEICPWSSYLTGAWKPDTEHAVIRLKNDQANYSLNTDDPLIF
KSTLDTDYQMTKRDMGFTEEEFKRLNINAAKSSFLPEDEKRELLDLLYKAYGMPPSASAG
QNL
GenBank ID Protein 28380
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P00813
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ADA_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X02994
GeneCard ID ADA
GenAtlas ID ADA
HGNC ID HGNC:186
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  3. Jones S, Zhang X, Parsons DW, Lin JC, Leary RJ, Angenendt P, Mankoo P, Carter H, Kamiyama H, Jimeno A, Hong SM, Fu B, Lin MT, Calhoun ES, Kamiyama M, Walter K, Nikolskaya T, Nikolsky Y, Hartigan J, Smith DR, Hidalgo M, Leach SD, Klein AP, Jaffee EM, Goggins M, Maitra A, Iacobuzio-Donahue C, Eshleman JR, Kern SE, Hruban RH, Karchin R, Papadopoulos N, Parmigiani G, Vogelstein B, Velculescu VE, Kinzler KW: Core signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancers revealed by global genomic analyses. Science. 2008 Sep 26;321(5897):1801-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1164368. Epub 2008 Sep 4. [PubMed:18772397 ]
  4. Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, Burton J, Gilbert JG, Jones M, Stavrides G, Almeida JP, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Barlow KF, Bates KN, Beard LM, Beare DM, Beasley OP, Bird CP, Blakey SE, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Buck D, Burrill W, Butler AP, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clamp M, Clark G, Clark LN, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley VE, Collier RE, Connor R, Corby NR, Coulson A, Coville GJ, Deadman R, Dhami P, Dunn M, Ellington AG, Frankland JA, Fraser A, French L, Garner P, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths MN, Gwilliam R, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Heath PD, Ho S, Holden JL, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Jekosch K, Johnson CM, Johnson D, Kay MP, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lehvaslaiho MH, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell JD, Marsh VL, Martin SL, McConnachie LJ, McLay K, McMurray AA, Milne S, Mistry D, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Nickerson T, Oliver K, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce TA, Peck AI, Phillimore BJ, Prathalingam SR, Plumb RW, Ramsay H, Rice CM, Ross MT, Scott CE, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Soderlund C, Steward CA, Sulston JE, Swann M, Sycamore N, Taylor R, Tee L, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans AC, Vaudin M, Wall M, Wallis JM, Whitehead SL, Whittaker P, Willey DL, Williams L, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Hubbard T, Durbin RM, Bentley DR, Beck S, Rogers J: The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20. Nature. 2001 Dec 20-27;414(6866):865-71. [PubMed:11780052 ]
  5. Daddona PE, Shewach DS, Kelley WN, Argos P, Markham AF, Orkin SH: Human adenosine deaminase. cDNA and complete primary amino acid sequence. J Biol Chem. 1984 Oct 10;259(19):12101-6. [PubMed:6090454 ]
  6. Wiginton DA, Adrian GS, Hutton JJ: Sequence of human adenosine deaminase cDNA including the coding region and a small intron. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Mar 12;12(5):2439-46. [PubMed:6546794 ]
  7. Valerio D, Duyvesteyn MG, Dekker BM, Weeda G, Berkvens TM, van der Voorn L, van Ormondt H, van der Eb AJ: Adenosine deaminase: characterization and expression of a gene with a remarkable promoter. EMBO J. 1985 Feb;4(2):437-43. [PubMed:3839456 ]
  8. Wiginton DA, Kaplan DJ, States JC, Akeson AL, Perme CM, Bilyk IJ, Vaughn AJ, Lattier DL, Hutton JJ: Complete sequence and structure of the gene for human adenosine deaminase. Biochemistry. 1986 Dec 16;25(25):8234-44. [PubMed:3028473 ]
  9. Orkin SH, Daddona PE, Shewach DS, Markham AF, Bruns GA, Goff SC, Kelley WN: Molecular cloning of human adenosine deaminase gene sequences. J Biol Chem. 1983 Nov 10;258(21):12753-6. [PubMed:6688808 ]
  10. Kameoka J, Tanaka T, Nojima Y, Schlossman SF, Morimoto C: Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26. Science. 1993 Jul 23;261(5120):466-9. [PubMed:8101391 ]
  11. De Meester I, Vanham G, Kestens L, Vanhoof G, Bosmans E, Gigase P, Scharpe S: Binding of adenosine deaminase to the lymphocyte surface via CD26. Eur J Immunol. 1994 Mar;24(3):566-70. [PubMed:7907293 ]
  12. Durinx C, Lambeir AM, Bosmans E, Falmagne JB, Berghmans R, Haemers A, Scharpe S, De Meester I: Molecular characterization of dipeptidyl peptidase activity in serum: soluble CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV is responsible for the release of X-Pro dipeptides. Eur J Biochem. 2000 Sep;267(17):5608-13. [PubMed:10951221 ]
  13. Gines S, Marino M, Mallol J, Canela EI, Morimoto C, Callebaut C, Hovanessian A, Casado V, Lluis C, Franco R: Regulation of epithelial and lymphocyte cell adhesion by adenosine deaminase-CD26 interaction. Biochem J. 2002 Jan 15;361(Pt 2):203-9. [PubMed:11772392 ]
  14. Aertgeerts K, Ye S, Shi L, Prasad SG, Witmer D, Chi E, Sang BC, Wijnands RA, Webb DR, Swanson RV: N-linked glycosylation of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26): effects on enzyme activity, homodimer formation, and adenosine deaminase binding. Protein Sci. 2004 Jan;13(1):145-54. [PubMed:14691230 ]
  15. Hirschhorn R, Yang DR, Israni A: An Asp8Asn substitution results in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) genetic polymorphism (ADA 2 allozyme): occurrence on different chromosomal backgrounds and apparent intragenic crossover. Ann Hum Genet. 1994 Jan;58(Pt 1):1-9. [PubMed:8031011 ]
  16. Adrian GS, Wiginton DA, Hutton JJ: Structure of adenosine deaminase mRNAs from normal and adenosine deaminase-deficient human cell lines. Mol Cell Biol. 1984 Sep;4(9):1712-7. [PubMed:6208479 ]
  17. Bonthron DT, Markham AF, Ginsburg D, Orkin SH: Identification of a point mutation in the adenosine deaminase gene responsible for immunodeficiency. J Clin Invest. 1985 Aug;76(2):894-7. [PubMed:3839802 ]
  18. Akeson AL, Wiginton DA, Dusing MR, States JC, Hutton JJ: Mutant human adenosine deaminase alleles and their expression by transfection into fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 1988 Nov 5;263(31):16291-6. [PubMed:3182793 ]
  19. Hirschhorn R, Tzall S, Ellenbogen A, Orkin SH: Identification of a point mutation resulting in a heat-labile adenosine deaminase (ADA) in two unrelated children with partial ADA deficiency. J Clin Invest. 1989 Feb;83(2):497-501. [PubMed:2783588 ]
  20. Hirschhorn R: Identification of two new missense mutations (R156C and S291L) in two ADA- SCID patients unusual for response to therapy with partial exchange transfusions. Hum Mutat. 1992;1(2):166-8. [PubMed:1284479 ]
  21. Santisteban I, Arredondo-Vega FX, Kelly S, Mary A, Fischer A, Hummell DS, Lawton A, Sorensen RU, Stiehm ER, Uribe L, et al.: Novel splicing, missense, and deletion mutations in seven adenosine deaminase-deficient patients with late/delayed onset of combined immunodeficiency disease. Contribution of genotype to phenotype. J Clin Invest. 1993 Nov;92(5):2291-302. [PubMed:8227344 ]
  22. Yang DR, Huie ML, Hirschhorn R: Homozygosity for a missense mutation (G20R) associated with neonatal onset adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID). Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1994 Feb;70(2):171-5. [PubMed:8299233 ]
  23. Santisteban I, Arredondo-Vega FX, Kelly S, Loubser M, Meydan N, Roifman C, Howell PL, Bowen T, Weinberg KI, Schroeder ML, et al.: Three new adenosine deaminase mutations that define a splicing enhancer and cause severe and partial phenotypes: implications for evolution of a CpG hotspot and expression of a transduced ADA cDNA. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Nov;4(11):2081-7. [PubMed:8589684 ]
  24. Santisteban I, Arredondo-Vega FX, Kelly S, Debre M, Fischer A, Perignon JL, Hilman B, elDahr J, Dreyfus DH, Gelfand EW, et al.: Four new adenosine deaminase mutations, altering a zinc-binding histidine, two conserved alanines, and a 5' splice site. Hum Mutat. 1995;5(3):243-50. [PubMed:7599635 ]
  25. Hirschhorn R, Borkowsky W, Jiang CK, Yang DR, Jenkins T: Two newly identified mutations (Thr233Ile and Leu152Met) in partially adenosine deaminase-deficient (ADA-) individuals that result in differing biochemical and metabolic phenotypes. Hum Genet. 1997 Jul;100(1):22-9. [PubMed:9225964 ]
  26. Arrendondo-Vega FX, Santisteban I, Notarangelo LD, El Dahr J, Buckley R, Roifman C, Conley ME, Hershfield MS: Seven novel mutations in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene in patients with severe and delayed onset combined immunodeficiency: G74C, V129M, G140E, R149W, Q199P, 462delG, and E337del. Mutations in brief no. 142. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(6):482. [PubMed:10200056 ]
  27. Retey JV, Adam M, Honegger E, Khatami R, Luhmann UF, Jung HH, Berger W, Landolt HP: A functional genetic variation of adenosine deaminase affects the duration and intensity of deep sleep in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 25;102(43):15676-81. Epub 2005 Oct 12. [PubMed:16221767 ]