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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00702
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5975
  • HMDBP05313
Name Glutamate decarboxylase 2
Synonyms
  1. 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase
  2. GAD-65
  3. Glutamate decarboxylase 65 kDa isoform
Gene Name GAD2
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Pathways
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • GABAergic synapse
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Type I diabetes mellitus
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid → gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2) details
L-Glutamic acid → gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide details
L-Aspartic acid → beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide details
Cysteic acid → Taurine + Carbon dioxide details
3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxide details
GO Classification
Biological Process
neurotransmitter biosynthetic process
response to drug
neurotransmitter secretion
glutamate decarboxylation to succinate
Cellular Component
cytosol
anchored to membrane
plasma membrane
cell junction
perinuclear region of cytoplasm
presynaptic membrane
axon
clathrin-sculpted gamma-aminobutyric acid transport vesicle membrane
Golgi membrane
synaptic vesicle membrane
Function
binding
catalytic activity
lyase activity
carbon-carbon lyase activity
carboxy-lyase activity
cofactor binding
pyridoxal phosphate binding
Molecular Function
pyridoxal phosphate binding
glutamate decarboxylase activity
Process
metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
organic acid metabolic process
oxoacid metabolic process
carboxylic acid metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Lipid-anchor
  2. Cytoplasm
  3. Golgi apparatus membrane
  4. Peripheral membrane protein
  5. Cytoplasmic vesicle
  6. Cytoplasmic side
  7. cytosol
  8. Cell junction
  9. synapse
  10. presynaptic cell membrane
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 10
Locus 10p11.23
SNPs GAD2
Gene Sequence
>1758 bp
ATGGCATCTCCGGGCTCTGGCTTTTGGTCTTTCGGGTCGGAAGATGGCTCTGGGGATTCC
GAGAATCCCGGCACAGCGCGAGCCTGGTGCCAAGTGGCTCAGAAGTTCACGGGCGGCATC
GGAAACAAACTGTGCGCCCTGCTCTACGGAGACGCCGAGAAGCCGGCGGAGAGCGGCGGG
AGCCAACCCCCGCGGGCCGCCGCCCGGAAGGCCGCCTGCGCCTGCGACCAGAAGCCCTGC
AGCTGCTCCAAAGTGGATGTCAACTACGCGTTTCTCCATGCAACAGACCTGCTGCCGGCG
TGTGATGGAGAAAGGCCCACTTTGGCGTTTCTGCAAGATGTTATGAACATTTTACTTCAG
TATGTGGTGAAAAGTTTCGATAGATCAACCAAAGTGATTGATTTCCATTATCCTAATGAG
CTTCTCCAAGAATATAATTGGGAATTGGCAGACCAACCACAAAATTTGGAGGAAATTTTG
ATGCATTGCCAAACAACTCTAAAATATGCAATTAAAACAGGGCATCCTAGATACTTCAAT
CAACTTTCTACTGGTTTGGATATGGTTGGATTAGCAGCAGACTGGCTGACATCAACAGCA
AATACTAACATGTTCACCTATGAAATTGCTCCAGTATTTGTGCTTTTGGAATATGTCACA
CTAAAGAAAATGAGAGAAATCATTGGCTGGCCAGGGGGCTCTGGCGATGGGATATTTTCT
CCCGGTGGCGCCATATCTAACATGTATGCCATGATGATCGCACGCTTTAAGATGTTCCCA
GAAGTCAAGGAGAAAGGAATGGCTGCTCTTCCCAGGCTCATTGCCTTCACGTCTGAACAT
AGTCATTTTTCTCTCAAGAAGGGAGCTGCAGCCTTAGGGATTGGAACAGACAGCGTGATT
CTGATTAAATGTGATGAGAGAGGGAAAATGATTCCATCTGATCTTGAAAGAAGGATTCTT
GAAGCCAAACAGAAAGGGTTTGTTCCTTTCCTCGTGAGTGCCACAGCTGGAACCACCGTG
TACGGAGCATTTGACCCCCTCTTAGCTGTCGCTGACATTTGCAAAAAGTATAAGATCTGG
ATGCATGTGGATGCAGCTTGGGGTGGGGGATTACTGATGTCCCGAAAACACAAGTGGAAA
CTGAGTGGCGTGGAGAGGGCCAACTCTGTGACGTGGAATCCACACAAGATGATGGGAGTC
CCTTTGCAGTGCTCTGCTCTCCTGGTTAGAGAAGAGGGATTGATGCAGAATTGCAACCAA
ATGCATGCCTCCTACCTCTTTCAGCAAGATAAACATTATGACCTGTCCTATGACACTGGA
GACAAGGCCTTACAGTGCGGACGCCACGTTGATGTTTTTAAACTATGGCTGATGTGGAGG
GCAAAGGGGACTACCGGGTTTGAAGCGCATGTTGATAAATGTTTGGAGTTGGCAGAGTAT
TTATACAACATCATAAAAAACCGAGAAGGATATGAGATGGTGTTTGATGGGAAGCCTCAG
CACACAAATGTCTGCTTCTGGTACATTCCTCCAAGCTTGCGTACTCTGGAAGACAATGAA
GAGAGAATGAGTCGCCTCTCGAAGGTGGCTCCAGTGATTAAAGCCAGAATGATGGAGTAT
GGAACCACAATGGTCAGCTACCAACCCTTGGGAGACAAGGTCAATTTCTTCCGCATGGTC
ATCTCAAACCCAGCGGCAACTCACCAAGACATTGACTTCCTGATTGAAGAAATAGAACGC
CTTGGACAAGATTTATAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 585
Molecular Weight 65410.77
Theoretical pI 6.899
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Glutamate decarboxylase 2
MASPGSGFWSFGSEDGSGDSENPGTARAWCQVAQKFTGGIGNKLCALLYGDAEKPAESGG
SQPPRAAARKAACACDQKPCSCSKVDVNYAFLHATDLLPACDGERPTLAFLQDVMNILLQ
YVVKSFDRSTKVIDFHYPNELLQEYNWELADQPQNLEEILMHCQTTLKYAIKTGHPRYFN
QLSTGLDMVGLAADWLTSTANTNMFTYEIAPVFVLLEYVTLKKMREIIGWPGGSGDGIFS
PGGAISNMYAMMIARFKMFPEVKEKGMAALPRLIAFTSEHSHFSLKKGAAALGIGTDSVI
LIKCDERGKMIPSDLERRILEAKQKGFVPFLVSATAGTTVYGAFDPLLAVADICKKYKIW
MHVDAAWGGGLLMSRKHKWKLSGVERANSVTWNPHKMMGVPLQCSALLVREEGLMQNCNQ
MHASYLFQQDKHYDLSYDTGDKALQCGRHVDVFKLWLMWRAKGTTGFEAHVDKCLELAEY
LYNIIKNREGYEMVFDGKPQHTNVCFWYIPPSLRTLEDNEERMSRLSKVAPVIKARMMEY
GTTMVSYQPLGDKVNFFRMVISNPAATHQDIDFLIEEIERLGQDL
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q05329
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name DCE2_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M81882
GeneCard ID GAD2
GenAtlas ID GAD2
HGNC ID HGNC:4093
References
General References
  1. Karlsen AE, Hagopian WA, Grubin CE, Dube S, Disteche CM, Adler DA, Barmeier H, Mathewes S, Grant FJ, Foster D, et al.: Cloning and primary structure of a human islet isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase from chromosome 10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Oct 1;88(19):8337-41. [PubMed:1924293 ]
  2. Bu DF, Erlander MG, Hitz BC, Tillakaratne NJ, Kaufman DL, Wagner-McPherson CB, Evans GA, Tobin AJ: Two human glutamate decarboxylases, 65-kDa GAD and 67-kDa GAD, are each encoded by a single gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 15;89(6):2115-9. [PubMed:1549570 ]
  3. Bu DF, Tobin AJ: The exon-intron organization of the genes (GAD1 and GAD2) encoding two human glutamate decarboxylases (GAD67 and GAD65) suggests that they derive from a common ancestral GAD. Genomics. 1994 May 1;21(1):222-8. [PubMed:8088791 ]
  4. Mauch L, Abney CC, Berg H, Scherbaum WA, Liedvogel B, Northemann W: Characterization of a linear epitope within the human pancreatic 64-kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase and its autoimmune recognition by sera from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Eur J Biochem. 1993 Mar 1;212(2):597-603. [PubMed:7680313 ]
  5. Kim J, Richter W, Aanstoot HJ, Shi Y, Fu Q, Rajotte R, Warnock G, Baekkeskov S: Differential expression of GAD65 and GAD67 in human, rat, and mouse pancreatic islets. Diabetes. 1993 Dec;42(12):1799-808. [PubMed:8243826 ]
  6. Namchuk M, Lindsay L, Turck CW, Kanaani J, Baekkeskov S: Phosphorylation of serine residues 3, 6, 10, and 13 distinguishes membrane anchored from soluble glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and is restricted to glutamic acid decarboxylase 65alpha. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jan 17;272(3):1548-57. [PubMed:8999827 ]
  7. Kanaani J, el-Husseini Ael-D, Aguilera-Moreno A, Diacovo JM, Bredt DS, Baekkeskov S: A combination of three distinct trafficking signals mediates axonal targeting and presynaptic clustering of GAD65. J Cell Biol. 2002 Sep 30;158(7):1229-38. [PubMed:12356867 ]
  8. Corper AL, Stratmann T, Apostolopoulos V, Scott CA, Garcia KC, Kang AS, Wilson IA, Teyton L: A structural framework for deciphering the link between I-Ag7 and autoimmune diabetes. Science. 2000 Apr 21;288(5465):505-11. [PubMed:10775108 ]
  9. Fenalti G, Law RH, Buckle AM, Langendorf C, Tuck K, Rosado CJ, Faux NG, Mahmood K, Hampe CS, Banga JP, Wilce M, Schmidberger J, Rossjohn J, El-Kabbani O, Pike RN, Smith AI, Mackay IR, Rowley MJ, Whisstock JC: GABA production by glutamic acid decarboxylase is regulated by a dynamic catalytic loop. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;14(4):280-6. Epub 2007 Mar 25. [PubMed:17384644 ]