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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00703
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5976
  • HMDBP02471
  • HMDBP05314
Name Glutamate decarboxylase 1
Synonyms
  1. 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase
  2. GAD-67
  3. Glutamate decarboxylase 67 kDa isoform
Gene Name GAD1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the production of GABA.
Pathways
  • 2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)
  • 4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Aspartate Metabolism
  • Beta-Alanine Metabolism
  • beta-Alanine metabolism
  • Butanoate metabolism
  • Canavan Disease
  • Carnosinuria, carnosinemia
  • GABA-Transaminase Deficiency
  • GABAergic synapse
  • Glutamate Metabolism
  • Homocarnosinosis
  • Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia Syndrome
  • Hypoacetylaspartia
  • Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
  • Taurine and Hypotaurine Metabolism
  • Type I diabetes mellitus
  • Ureidopropionase Deficiency
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid → gamma-Aminobutyric acid + CO(2) details
L-Glutamic acid → gamma-Aminobutyric acid + Carbon dioxide details
L-Aspartic acid → beta-Alanine + Carbon dioxide details
Cysteic acid → Taurine + Carbon dioxide details
3-Sulfinoalanine → Hypotaurine + Carbon dioxide details
GO Classification
Biological Process
neurotransmitter biosynthetic process
response to drug
neurotransmitter secretion
glutamate decarboxylation to succinate
protein-pyridoxal-5-phosphate linkage
Cellular Component
plasma membrane
clathrin-sculpted gamma-aminobutyric acid transport vesicle membrane
Function
binding
catalytic activity
lyase activity
carbon-carbon lyase activity
carboxy-lyase activity
cofactor binding
pyridoxal phosphate binding
Molecular Function
pyridoxal phosphate binding
glutamate decarboxylase activity
Process
metabolic process
cellular metabolism
cellular metabolic process
organic acid metabolic process
oxoacid metabolic process
carboxylic acid metabolic process
physiological process
metabolism
amino acid and derivative metabolism
amino acid metabolism
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 2
Locus 2q31
SNPs GAD1
Gene Sequence
>1785 bp
ATGGCGTCTTCGACCCCATCTTCGTCCGCAACCTCCTCGAACGCGGGAGCGGACCCCAAT
ACCACTAACCTGCGCCCCACAACGTACGATACCTGGTGCGGCGTGGCCCATGGATGCACC
AGAAAACTGGGGCTCAAGATCTGCGGCTTCTTGCAAAGGACCAACAGCCTGGAAGAGAAG
AGTCGCCTTGTGAGTGCCTTCAAGGAGAGGCAATCCTCCAAGAACCTGCTTTCCTGTGAA
AACAGCGACCGGGATGCCCGCTTCCGGCGCACAGAGACTGACTTCTCTAATCTGTTTGCT
AGAGATCTGCTTCCGGCTAAGAACGGTGAGGAGCAAACCGTGCAATTCCTCCTGGAAGTG
GTGGACATACTCCTCAACTATGTCCGCAAGACATTTGATCGCTCCACCAAGGTGCTGGAC
TTTCATCACCCACACCAGTTGCTGGAAGGCATGGAGGGCTTCAACTTGGAGCTCTCTGAC
CACCCCGAGTCCCTGGAGCAGATCCTGGTTGACTGCAGAGACACCTTGAAGTATGGGGTT
CGCACAGGTCATCCTCGATTTTTCAACCAGCTCTCCACTGGATTGGATATTATTGGCCTA
GCTGGAGAATGGCTGACATCAACGGCCAATACCAACATGTTTACATATGAAATTGCACCA
GTGTTTGTCCTCATGGAACAAATAACACTTAAGAAGATGAGAGAGATAGTTGGATGGTCA
AGTAAAGATGGTGATGGGATATTTTCTCCTGGGGGCGCCATATCCAACATGTACAGCATC
ATGGCTGCTCGCTACAAGTACTTCCCGGAAGTTAAGACAAAGGGCATGGCGGCTGTGCCT
AAACTGGTCCTCTTCACCTCAGAACAGAGTCACTATTCCATAAAGAAAGCTGGGGCTGCA
CTTGGCTTTGGAACTGACAATGTGATTTTGATAAAGTGCAATGAAAGGGGGAAAATAATT
CCAGCTGATTTTGAGGCAAAAATTCTTGAAGCCAAACAGAAGGGATATGTTCCCTTTTAT
GTCAATGCAACTGCTGGCACGACTGTTTATGGAGCTTTTGATCCGATACAAGAGATTGCA
GATATATGTGAGAAATATAACCTTTGGTTGCATGTCGATGCTGCCTGGGGAGGTGGGCTG
CTCATGTCCAGGAAGCACCGCCATAAACTCAACGGCATAGAAAGGGCCAACTCAGTCACC
TGGAACCCTCACAAGATGATGGGCGTGCTGTTGCAGTGCTCTGCCATTCTCGTCAAGGAA
AAGGGTATACTCCAAGGATGCAACCAGATGTGTGCAGGATACCTCTTCCAGCCAGACAAG
CAGTATGATGTCTCCTACGACACCGGGGACAAGGCAATTCAGTGTGGCCGCCACGTGGAT
ATCTTCAAGTTCTGGCTGATGTGGAAAGCAAAGGGCACAGTGGGATTTGAAAACCAGATC
AACAAATGCCTGGAACTGGCTGAATACCTCTATGCCAAGATTAAAAACAGAGAAGAATTT
GAGATGGTTTTCAATGGCGAGCCTGAGCACACAAACGTCTGTTTTTGGTATATTCCACAA
AGCCTCAGGGGTGTGCCAGACAGCCCTCAACGACGGGAAAAGCTACACAAGGTGGCTCCA
AAAATCAAAGCCCTGATGATGGAGTCAGGTACGACCATGGTTGGCTACCAGCCCCAAGGG
GACAAGGCCAACTTCTTCCGGATGGTCATCTCCAACCCAGCCGCTACCCAGTCTGACATT
GACTTCCTCATTGAGGAGATAGAAAGACTGGGCCAGGATCTGTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 594
Molecular Weight 66896.065
Theoretical pI 7.615
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Glutamate decarboxylase 1
MASSTPSSSATSSNAGADPNTTNLRPTTYDTWCGVAHGCTRKLGLKICGFLQRTNSLEEK
SRLVSAFKERQSSKNLLSCENSDRDARFRRTETDFSNLFARDLLPAKNGEEQTVQFLLEV
VDILLNYVRKTFDRSTKVLDFHHPHQLLEGMEGFNLELSDHPESLEQILVDCRDTLKYGV
RTGHPRFFNQLSTGLDIIGLAGEWLTSTANTNMFTYEIAPVFVLMEQITLKKMREIVGWS
SKDGDGIFSPGGAISNMYSIMAARYKYFPEVKTKGMAAVPKLVLFTSEQSHYSIKKAGAA
LGFGTDNVILIKCNERGKIIPADFEAKILEAKQKGYVPFYVNATAGTTVYGAFDPIQEIA
DICEKYNLWLHVDAAWGGGLLMSRKHRHKLNGIERANSVTWNPHKMMGVLLQCSAILVKE
KGILQGCNQMCAGYLFQPDKQYDVSYDTGDKAIQCGRHVDIFKFWLMWKAKGTVGFENQI
NKCLELAEYLYAKIKNREEFEMVFNGEPEHTNVCFWYIPQSLRGVPDSPQRREKLHKVAP
KIKALMMESGTTMVGYQPQGDKANFFRMVISNPAATQSDIDFLIEEIERLGQDL
GenBank ID Protein 62988850
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q99259
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name DCE1_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AC007405
GeneCard ID GAD1
GenAtlas ID GAD1
HGNC ID HGNC:4092
References
General References
  1. Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Pepin KH, Minx P, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Kremitzki C, Oddy L, Du H, Sun H, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Carter J, Cordes M, Harris A, Isak A, van Brunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Abbott S, Armstrong J, Belter EA, Caruso L, Cedroni M, Cotton M, Davidson T, Desai A, Elliott G, Erb T, Fronick C, Gaige T, Haakenson W, Haglund K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Kim K, Kruchowski SS, Strong CM, Grewal N, Goyea E, Hou S, Levy A, Martinka S, Mead K, McLellan MD, Meyer R, Randall-Maher J, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Shah N, Swearengen-Shahid S, Snider J, Strong JT, Thompson J, Yoakum M, Leonard S, Pearman C, Trani L, Radionenko M, Waligorski JE, Wang C, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Maupin R, Latreille P, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Pohl C, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Berkowicz N, Nelson JO, Osborne J, Ding L, Meyer R, Sabo A, Shotland Y, Sinha P, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Jones TA, She X, Ciccarelli FD, Izaurralde E, Taylor J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Cox DR, Huang X, McPherson JD, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Warren WC, Chinwalla AT, Eddy SR, Marra MA, Ovcharenko I, Furey TS, Miller W, Eichler EE, Bork P, Suyama M, Torrents D, Waterston RH, Wilson RK: Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. Nature. 2005 Apr 7;434(7034):724-31. [PubMed:15815621 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Bu DF, Erlander MG, Hitz BC, Tillakaratne NJ, Kaufman DL, Wagner-McPherson CB, Evans GA, Tobin AJ: Two human glutamate decarboxylases, 65-kDa GAD and 67-kDa GAD, are each encoded by a single gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 15;89(6):2115-9. [PubMed:1549570 ]
  4. Bu DF, Tobin AJ: The exon-intron organization of the genes (GAD1 and GAD2) encoding two human glutamate decarboxylases (GAD67 and GAD65) suggests that they derive from a common ancestral GAD. Genomics. 1994 May 1;21(1):222-8. [PubMed:8088791 ]
  5. Fenalti G, Law RH, Buckle AM, Langendorf C, Tuck K, Rosado CJ, Faux NG, Mahmood K, Hampe CS, Banga JP, Wilce M, Schmidberger J, Rossjohn J, El-Kabbani O, Pike RN, Smith AI, Mackay IR, Rowley MJ, Whisstock JC: GABA production by glutamic acid decarboxylase is regulated by a dynamic catalytic loop. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007 Apr;14(4):280-6. Epub 2007 Mar 25. [PubMed:17384644 ]
  6. Kelly C, Carter ND, Johnstone AP, Nussey SS: Cloning of large isoform of human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase. Lancet. 1991 Dec 7;338(8780):1468-9. [PubMed:1683462 ]
  7. Kelly CD, Edwards Y, Johnstone AP, Harfst E, Nogradi A, Nussey SS, Povey S, Carter ND: Nucleotide sequence and chromosomal assignment of a cDNA encoding the large isoform of human glutamate decarboxylase. Ann Hum Genet. 1992 Jul;56(Pt 3):255-65. [PubMed:1339255 ]
  8. Yamashita K, Cram DS, Harrison LC: Molecular cloning of full-length glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 from human pancreas and islets. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 May 14;192(3):1347-52. [PubMed:8507202 ]
  9. Kawasaki E, Moriuchi R, Watanabe M, Saitoh K, Brunicardi FC, Watt PC, Yamaguchi T, Mullen Y, Akazawa S, Miyamoto T, et al.: Cloning and expression of large isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase from human pancreatic islet. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 May 14;192(3):1353-9. [PubMed:8507203 ]
  10. Chessler SD, Lernmark A: Alternative splicing of GAD67 results in the synthesis of a third form of glutamic-acid decarboxylase in human islets and other non-neural tissues. J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 18;275(7):5188-92. [PubMed:10671565 ]
  11. Cram DS, Barnett LD, Joseph JL, Harrison LC: Cloning and partial nucleotide sequence of human glutamic acid decarboxylase cDNA from brain and pancreatic islets. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 May 15;176(3):1239-44. [PubMed:2039509 ]
  12. Persson H, Pelto-Huikko M, Metsis M, Soder O, Brene S, Skog S, Hokfelt T, Ritzen EM: Expression of the neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase in male germ cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Sep;10(9):4701-11. [PubMed:1697032 ]
  13. Lynex CN, Carr IM, Leek JP, Achuthan R, Mitchell S, Maher ER, Woods CG, Bonthon DT, Markham AF: Homozygosity for a missense mutation in the 67 kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase in a family with autosomal recessive spastic cerebral palsy: parallels with Stiff-Person Syndrome and other movement disorders. BMC Neurol. 2004 Nov 30;4(1):20. [PubMed:15571623 ]