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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00723
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5997
  • HMDBP06539
Name Alpha-galactosidase A
Synonyms
  1. Agalsidase
  2. Alpha-D-galactosidase A
  3. Alpha-D-galactoside galactohydrolase
  4. Melibiase
Gene Name GLA
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in catalytic activity
Specific Function Not Available
Pathways
  • Fabry disease
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Galactose Metabolism
  • Galactosemia
  • Gaucher Disease
  • Globoid Cell Leukodystrophy
  • Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - globo series
  • Krabbe disease
  • Lysosome
  • Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)
  • Sphingolipid Metabolism
  • sphingolipid metabolism
Reactions
Melibiose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + D-Glucose details
Raffinose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + Sucrose details
Galactosylglycerol + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + Glycerol details
Galactinol + Water → myo-Inositol + Beta-D-Galactose details
Epimelibiose + Water → D-Mannose + Beta-D-Galactose details
Melibiitol + Water → Sorbitol + Beta-D-Galactose details
Stachyose + Water → Raffinose + Beta-D-Galactose details
Digalactosylceramide + Water → Galactosylceramide + Beta-D-Galactose details
Digalactosyl-diacylglycerol + Water → 1,2-Diacyl-3-beta-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol + Beta-D-Galactose details
D-Gal alpha 1->6D-Gal alpha 1->6D-Glucose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + Melibiose details
Water + Globotriaosylceramide → Beta-D-Galactose + Lactosylceramide details
Melibiose + Water → Beta-D-Galactose + D-Glucose details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
phospholipid metabolic process
glycoside catabolic process
glycosylceramide catabolic process
negative regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process
negative regulation of nitric-oxide synthase activity
oligosaccharide metabolic process
Cellular Component
Golgi apparatus
lysosomal lumen
extracellular region
Function
ion binding
cation binding
binding
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds
hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing o-glycosyl compounds
Molecular Function
alpha-galactosidase activity
cation binding
galactoside binding
raffinose alpha-galactosidase activity
receptor binding
protein homodimerization activity
Process
metabolic process
primary metabolic process
carbohydrate metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Lysosome
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
SNPs GLA
Gene Sequence
>1290 bp
ATGCAGCTGAGGAACCCAGAACTACATCTGGGCTGCGCGCTTGCGCTTCGCTTCCTGGCC
CTCGTTTCCTGGGACATCCCTGGGGCTAGAGCACTGGACAATGGATTGGCAAGGACGCCT
ACCATGGGCTGGCTGCACTGGGAGCGCTTCATGTGCAACCTTGACTGCCAGGAAGAGCCA
GATTCCTGCATCAGTGAGAAGCTCTTCATGGAGATGGCAGAGCTCATGGTCTCAGAAGGC
TGGAAGGATGCAGGTTATGAGTACCTCTGCATTGATGACTGTTGGATGGCTCCCCAAAGA
GATTCAGAAGGCAGACTTCAGGCAGACCCTCAGCGCTTTCCTCATGGGATTCGCCAGCTA
GCTAATTATGTTCACAGCAAAGGACTGAAGCTAGGGATTTATGCAGATGTTGGAAATAAA
ACCTGCGCAGGCTTCCCTGGGAGTTTTGGATACTACGACATTGATGCCCAGACCTTTGCT
GACTGGGGAGTAGATCTGCTAAAATTTGATGGTTGTTACTGTGACAGTTTGGAAAATTTG
GCAGATGGTTATAAGCACATGTCCTTGGCCCTGAATAGGACTGGCAGAAGCATTGTGTAC
TCCTGTGAGTGGCCTCTTTATATGTGGCCCTTTCAAAAGCCCAATTATACAGAAATCCGA
CAGTACTGCAATCACTGGCGAAATTTTGCTGACATTGATGATTCCTGGAAAAGTATAAAG
AGTATCTTGGACTGGACATCTTTTAACCAGGAGAGAATTGTTGATGTTGCTGGACCAGGG
GGTTGGAATGACCCAGATATGTTAGTGATTGGCAACTTTGGCCTCAGCTGGAATCAGCAA
GTAACTCAGATGGCCCTCTGGGCTATCATGGCTGCTCCTTTATTCATGTCTAATGACCTC
CGACACATCAGCCCTCAAGCCAAAGCTCTCCTTCAGGATAAGGACGTAATTGCCATCAAT
CAGGACCCCTTGGGCAAGCAAGGGTACCAGCTTAGACAGGGAGACAACTTTGAAGTGTGG
GAACGACCTCTCTCAGGCTTAGCCTGGGCTGTAGCTATGATAAACCGGCAGGAGATTGGT
GGACCTCGCTCTTATACCATCGCAGTTGCTTCCCTGGGTAAAGGAGTGGCCTGTAATCCT
GCCTGCTTCATCACACAGCTCCTCCCTGTGAAAAGGAAGCTAGGGTTCTATGAATGGACT
TCAAGGTTAAGAAGTCACATAAATCCCACAGGCACTGTTTTGCTTCAGCTAGAAAATACA
ATGCAGATGTCATTAAAAGACTTACTTTAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 429
Molecular Weight Not Available
Theoretical pI Not Available
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Alpha-galactosidase A
MQLRNPELHLGCALALRFLALVSWDIPGARALDNGLARTPTMGWLHWERFMCNLDCQEEP
DSCISEKLFMEMAELMVSEGWKDAGYEYLCIDDCWMAPQRDSEGRLQADPQRFPHGIRQL
ANYVHSKGLKLGIYADVGNKTCAGFPGSFGYYDIDAQTFADWGVDLLKFDGCYCDSLENL
ADGYKHMSLALNRTGRSIVYSCEWPLYMWPFQKPNYTEIRQYCNHWRNFADIDDSWKSIK
SILDWTSFNQERIVDVAGPGGWNDPDMLVIGNFGLSWNQQVTQMALWAIMAAPLFMSNDL
RHISPQAKALLQDKDVIAINQDPLGKQGYQLRQGDNFEVWERPLSGLAWAVAMINRQEIG
GPRSYTIAVASLGKGVACNPACFITQLLPVKRKLGFYEWTSRLRSHINPTGTVLLQLENT
MQMSLKDLL
GenBank ID Protein 757912
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P06280
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name AGAL_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID X05790
GeneCard ID GLA
GenAtlas ID GLA
HGNC ID HGNC:4296
References
General References
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  4. Tsuji S, Martin BM, Kaslow DC, Migeon BR, Choudary PV, Stubbleflied BK, Mayor JA, Murray GJ, Barranger JA, Ginns EI: Signal sequence and DNA-mediated expression of human lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A. Eur J Biochem. 1987 Jun 1;165(2):275-80. [PubMed:3036505 ]
  5. Kornreich R, Desnick RJ, Bishop DF: Nucleotide sequence of the human alpha-galactosidase A gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Apr 25;17(8):3301-2. [PubMed:2542896 ]
  6. Oeltjen JC, Liu X, Lu J, Allen RC, Muzny D, Belmont JW, Gibbs RA: Sixty-nine kilobases of contiguous human genomic sequence containing the alpha-galactosidase A and Bruton's tyrosine kinase loci. Mamm Genome. 1995 May;6(5):334-8. [PubMed:7626884 ]
  7. Bishop DF, Calhoun DH, Bernstein HS, Hantzopoulos P, Quinn M, Desnick RJ: Human alpha-galactosidase A: nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding the mature enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jul;83(13):4859-63. [PubMed:3014515 ]
  8. Quinn M, Hantzopoulos P, Fidanza V, Calhoun DH: A genomic clone containing the promoter for the gene encoding the human lysosomal enzyme, alpha-galactosidase A. Gene. 1987;58(2-3):177-88. [PubMed:2892762 ]
  9. Bishop DF, Kornreich R, Desnick RJ: Structural organization of the human alpha-galactosidase A gene: further evidence for the absence of a 3' untranslated region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jun;85(11):3903-7. [PubMed:2836863 ]
  10. Novo FJ, Kruszewski A, MacDermot KD, Goldspink G, Gorecki DC: Editing of human alpha-galactosidase RNA resulting in a pyrimidine to purine conversion. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995 Jul 25;23(14):2636-40. [PubMed:7503918 ]
  11. Garman SC, Garboczi DN: The molecular defect leading to Fabry disease: structure of human alpha-galactosidase. J Mol Biol. 2004 Mar 19;337(2):319-35. [PubMed:15003450 ]
  12. Eng CM, Desnick RJ: Molecular basis of Fabry disease: mutations and polymorphisms in the human alpha-galactosidase A gene. Hum Mutat. 1994;3(2):103-11. [PubMed:7911050 ]
  13. Koide T, Ishiura M, Iwai K, Inoue M, Kaneda Y, Okada Y, Uchida T: A case of Fabry's disease in a patient with no alpha-galactosidase A activity caused by a single amino acid substitution of Pro-40 by Ser. FEBS Lett. 1990 Jan 1;259(2):353-6. [PubMed:2152885 ]
  14. von Scheidt W, Eng CM, Fitzmaurice TF, Erdmann E, Hubner G, Olsen EG, Christomanou H, Kandolf R, Bishop DF, Desnick RJ: An atypical variant of Fabry's disease with manifestations confined to the myocardium. N Engl J Med. 1991 Feb 7;324(6):395-9. [PubMed:1846223 ]
  15. Sakuraba H, Oshima A, Fukuhara Y, Shimmoto M, Nagao Y, Bishop DF, Desnick RJ, Suzuki Y: Identification of point mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene in classical and atypical hemizygotes with Fabry disease. Am J Hum Genet. 1990 Nov;47(5):784-9. [PubMed:2171331 ]
  16. Bernstein HS, Bishop DF, Astrin KH, Kornreich R, Eng CM, Sakuraba H, Desnick RJ: Fabry disease: six gene rearrangements and an exonic point mutation in the alpha-galactosidase gene. J Clin Invest. 1989 Apr;83(4):1390-9. [PubMed:2539398 ]
  17. Ishii S, Sakuraba H, Suzuki Y: Point mutations in the upstream region of the alpha-galactosidase A gene exon 6 in an atypical variant of Fabry disease. Hum Genet. 1992 Apr;89(1):29-32. [PubMed:1315715 ]
  18. Eng CM, Resnick-Silverman LA, Niehaus DJ, Astrin KH, Desnick RJ: Nature and frequency of mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene that cause Fabry disease. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Dec;53(6):1186-97. [PubMed:7504405 ]
  19. Davies JP, Winchester BG, Malcolm S: Mutation analysis in patients with the typical form of Anderson-Fabry disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jul;2(7):1051-3. [PubMed:8395937 ]
  20. Davies J, Christomanou H, Winchester B, Malcolm S: Detection of 8 new mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene in Fabry disease. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Apr;3(4):667-9. [PubMed:8069316 ]
  21. Eng CM, Niehaus DJ, Enriquez AL, Burgert TS, Ludman MD, Desnick RJ: Fabry disease: twenty-three mutations including sense and antisense CpG alterations and identification of a deletional hot-spot in the alpha-galactosidase A gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Oct;3(10):1795-9. [PubMed:7531540 ]
  22. Okumiya T, Ishii S, Takenaka T, Kase R, Kamei S, Sakuraba H, Suzuki Y: Galactose stabilizes various missense mutants of alpha-galactosidase in Fabry disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Sep 25;214(3):1219-24. [PubMed:7575533 ]
  23. Okumiya T, Ishii S, Kase R, Kamei S, Sakuraba H, Suzuki Y: Alpha-galactosidase gene mutations in Fabry disease: heterogeneous expressions of mutant enzyme proteins. Hum Genet. 1995 May;95(5):557-61. [PubMed:7759078 ]
  24. Madsen KM, Hasholt L, Sorensen SA, Fermer ML, Dahl N: Two novel mutations (L32P) and (G85N) among five different missense mutations in six Danish families with Fabry's disease. Hum Mutat. 1995;5(3):277-8. [PubMed:7599642 ]
  25. Nakao S, Takenaka T, Maeda M, Kodama C, Tanaka A, Tahara M, Yoshida A, Kuriyama M, Hayashibe H, Sakuraba H, et al.: An atypical variant of Fabry's disease in men with left ventricular hypertrophy. N Engl J Med. 1995 Aug 3;333(5):288-93. [PubMed:7596372 ]
  26. Sawada K, Mizoguchi K, Hishida A, Kaneko E, Koide Y, Nishimura K, Kimura M: Point mutation in the alpha-galactosidase A gene of atypical Fabry disease with only nephropathy. Clin Nephrol. 1996 May;45(5):289-94. [PubMed:8738659 ]
  27. Davies JP, Eng CM, Hill JA, Malcolm S, MacDermot K, Winchester B, Desnick RJ: Fabry disease: fourteen alpha-galactosidase A mutations in unrelated families from the United Kingdom and other European countries. Eur J Hum Genet. 1996;4(4):219-24. [PubMed:8875188 ]
  28. Cariolou MA, Christodoulides M, Manoli P, Kokkofitou A, Tsambaos D: Novel trinucleotide deletion in Fabry's disease. Hum Genet. 1996 Apr;97(4):468-70. [PubMed:8834244 ]
  29. Germain D, Biasotto M, Tosi M, Meo T, Kahn A, Poenaru L: Fluorescence-assisted mismatch analysis (FAMA) for exhaustive screening of the alpha-galactosidase A gene and detection of carriers in Fabry disease. Hum Genet. 1996 Dec;98(6):719-26. [PubMed:8931708 ]
  30. Blanch LC, Meaney C, Morris CP: A sensitive mutation screening strategy for Fabry disease: detection of nine mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene. Hum Mutat. 1996;8(1):38-43. [PubMed:8807334 ]
  31. Redonnet-Vernhet I, Ploos van Amstel JK, Jansen RP, Wevers RA, Salvayre R, Levade T: Uneven X inactivation in a female monozygotic twin pair with Fabry disease and discordant expression of a novel mutation in the alpha-galactosidase A gene. J Med Genet. 1996 Aug;33(8):682-8. [PubMed:8863162 ]
  32. Takata T, Okumiya T, Hayashibe H, Shimmoto M, Kase R, Itoh K, Utsumi K, Kamei S, Sakuraba H: Screening and detection of gene mutations in Japanese patients with Fabry disease by non-radioactive single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. Brain Dev. 1997 Mar;19(2):111-6. [PubMed:9105656 ]
  33. Eng CM, Ashley GA, Burgert TS, Enriquez AL, D'Souza M, Desnick RJ: Fabry disease: thirty-five mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene in patients with classic and variant phenotypes. Mol Med. 1997 Mar;3(3):174-82. [PubMed:9100224 ]
  34. Chen CH, Shyu PW, Wu SJ, Sheu SS, Desnick RJ, Hsiao KJ: Identification of a novel point mutation (S65T) in alpha-galactosidase A gene in Chinese patients with Fabry disease. Mutations in brief no. 169. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(4):328-30. [PubMed:9554750 ]
  35. Miyazaki T, Kajita M, Ohmori S, Mizutani N, Niwa T, Murata Y, Seo H: A novel mutation (E358K) in the alpha-galactosidase A gene detected in a Japanese family with Fabry disease. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S139-40. [PubMed:9452068 ]
  36. Okumiya T, Kawamura O, Itoh K, Kase R, Ishii S, Kamei S, Sakuraba H: Novel missense mutation (M72V) of alpha-galactosidase gene and its expression product in an atypical Fabry hemizygote. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S213-6. [PubMed:9452090 ]
  37. Guffon N, Froissart R, Chevalier-Porst F, Maire I: Mutation analysis in 11 French patients with Fabry disease. Hum Mutat. 1998;Suppl 1:S288-90. [PubMed:9452111 ]
  38. Germain DP, Poenaru L: Fabry disease: identification of novel alpha-galactosidase A mutations and molecular carrier detection by use of fluorescent chemical cleavage of mismatches. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Apr 21;257(3):708-13. [PubMed:10208848 ]
  39. Beyer EM, Karpova EA, Udalova OV, Ploos van Amstel JK, van Diggelen OP, Tsvetkova IV: The multiple cases of Fabry disease in a Russian family caused by an E341K amino acid substitution in the alpha-galactosidase A. Clin Chim Acta. 1999 Feb;280(1-2):81-9. [PubMed:10090526 ]
  40. Kase R, Bierfreund U, Klein A, Kolter T, Utsumi K, Itoha K, Sandhoff K, Sakuraba H: Characterization of two alpha-galactosidase mutants (Q279E and R301Q) found in an atypical variant of Fabry disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 15;1501(2-3):227-35. [PubMed:10838196 ]
  41. Topaloglu AK, Ashley GA, Tong B, Shabbeer J, Astrin KH, Eng CM, Desnick RJ: Twenty novel mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene causing Fabry disease. Mol Med. 1999 Dec;5(12):806-11. [PubMed:10666480 ]
  42. Lee JK, Kim GH, Kim JS, Kim KK, Lee MC, Yoo HW: Identification of four novel mutations in five unrelated Korean families with Fabry disease. Clin Genet. 2000 Sep;58(3):228-33. [PubMed:11076046 ]
  43. Ashton-Prolla P, Tong B, Shabbeer J, Astrin KH, Eng CM, Desnick RJ: Fabry disease: twenty-two novel mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene and genotype/phenotype correlations in severely and mildly affected hemizygotes and heterozygotes. J Investig Med. 2000 Jul;48(4):227-35. [PubMed:10916280 ]
  44. Germain DP, Salard D, Fellmann F, Azibi K, Caillaud C, Bernard MC, Poenaru L: Identification of a novel de novo mutation (G373D) in the alpha-galactosidase A gene (GLA) in a patient affected with Fabry disease. Hum Mutat. 2001 Apr;17(4):353. [PubMed:11295840 ]
  45. Blaydon D, Hill J, Winchester B: Fabry disease: 20 novel GLA mutations in 35 families. Hum Mutat. 2001 Nov;18(5):459. [PubMed:11668641 ]
  46. Branton MH, Schiffmann R, Sabnis SG, Murray GJ, Quirk JM, Altarescu G, Goldfarb L, Brady RO, Balow JE, Austin Iii HA, Kopp JB: Natural history of Fabry renal disease: influence of alpha-galactosidase A activity and genetic mutations on clinical course. Medicine (Baltimore). 2002 Mar;81(2):122-38. [PubMed:11889412 ]
  47. Yang CC, Lai LW, Whitehair O, Hwu WL, Chiang SC, Lien YH: Two novel mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene in Chinese patients with Fabry disease. Clin Genet. 2003 Mar;63(3):205-9. [PubMed:12694230 ]
  48. Lai LW, Whitehair O, Wu MJ, O'Meara M, Lien YH: Analysis of splice-site mutations of the alpha-galactosidase A gene in Fabry disease. Clin Genet. 2003 Jun;63(6):476-82. [PubMed:12786754 ]
  49. Verovnik F, Benko D, Vujkovac B, Linthorst GE: Remarkable variability in renal disease in a large Slovenian family with Fabry disease. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004 Aug;12(8):678-81. [PubMed:15162124 ]
  50. Shabbeer J, Robinson M, Desnick RJ: Detection of alpha-galactosidase a mutations causing Fabry disease by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. Hum Mutat. 2005 Mar;25(3):299-305. [PubMed:15712228 ]
  51. Nance CS, Klein CJ, Banikazemi M, Dikman SH, Phelps RG, McArthur JC, Rodriguez M, Desnick RJ: Later-onset Fabry disease: an adult variant presenting with the cramp-fasciculation syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2006 Mar;63(3):453-7. [PubMed:16533976 ]
  52. Hwu WL, Chien YH, Lee NC, Chiang SC, Dobrovolny R, Huang AC, Yeh HY, Chao MC, Lin SJ, Kitagawa T, Desnick RJ, Hsu LW: Newborn screening for Fabry disease in Taiwan reveals a high incidence of the later-onset GLA mutation c.936+919G>A (IVS4+919G>A). Hum Mutat. 2009 Oct;30(10):1397-405. doi: 10.1002/humu.21074. [PubMed:19621417 ]