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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00724
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5998
  • HMDBP04400
Name Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial
Synonyms
  1. CYPXIA1
  2. Cholesterol desmolase
  3. Cytochrome P450 11A1
  4. Cytochrome P450(scc)
Gene Name CYP11A1
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Pathways
  • 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP11B1)
  • 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP17)
  • 21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21)
  • 3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase Deficiency
  • Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 5 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17 Alpha-hydroxylase Deficiency
  • Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome
  • C21-steroid hormone metabolism
  • Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (CLAH) or Lipoid CAH
  • Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency (CMO I)
  • Corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency - CMO II
  • Steroid hormone biosynthesis
  • Steroidogenesis
Reactions
Cholesterol + reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Oxygen → Pregnenolone + 4-Methylpentanal + oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Water details
Cholesterol + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin → 20alpha-Hydroxycholesterol + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin details
Cholesterol + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Hydrogen Ion → 22b-Hydroxycholesterol + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin details
20a,22b-Dihydroxycholesterol + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Hydrogen Ion → 4-Methylpentanal + Pregnenolone + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin details
17a,20a-Dihydroxycholesterol + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin → 17a-Hydroxypregnenolone + 4-Methylpentanal + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin details
20alpha-Hydroxycholesterol + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Hydrogen Ion → 20a,22b-Dihydroxycholesterol + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin details
22b-Hydroxycholesterol + Oxygen + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Hydrogen Ion → 20a,22b-Dihydroxycholesterol + Water + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin details
GO Classification
Biological Process
cerebellum development
biphenyl metabolic process
C21-steroid hormone biosynthetic process
cellular response to antibiotic
cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus
cellular response to follicle-stimulating hormone stimulus
cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus
dibenzo-p-dioxin metabolic process
fractalkine metabolic process
granulosa cell differentiation
hippocampus development
Leydig cell differentiation
mating behavior
phenol-containing compound metabolic process
phthalate metabolic process
progesterone biosynthetic process
response to fungicide
response to gamma radiation
response to genistein
response to insecticide
response to L-ascorbic acid
response to salt stress
Schwann cell differentiation
vitamin D metabolic process
cellular response to cAMP
cellular response to tumor necrosis factor
cholesterol metabolic process
response to drug
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide
cellular response to interleukin-1
xenobiotic metabolic process
cellular response to cadmium ion
response to acid
response to alkaloid
testosterone biosynthetic process
response to corticosterone stimulus
cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus
maternal process involved in female pregnancy
response to hydrogen peroxide
response to vitamin E
estrogen biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
mitochondrial matrix
mitochondrial crista
perikaryon
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
electron carrier activity
iron ion binding
monooxygenase activity
heme binding
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
electron carrier activity
cholesterol binding
cholesterol monooxygenase (side-chain-cleaving) activity
iron ion binding
heme binding
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion membrane
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 15
Locus 15q23-q24
SNPs CYP11A1
Gene Sequence
>1566 bp
ATGCTGGCCAAGGGTCTTCCCCCACGCTCAGTCCTGGTCAAAGGCTGCCAGACCTTTCTG
AGTGCCCCCAGGGAGGGGCTGGGGCGTCTCAGGGTGCCCACTGGCGAGGGAGCTGGCATC
TCCACCCGCAGTCCTCGCCCCTTCAATGAGATCCCCTCTCCTGGTGACAATGGCTGGCTA
AACCTGTACCATTTCTGGAGGGAGACGGGCACACACAAAGTCCACCTTCACCATGTCCAG
AATTTCCAGAAGTATGGCCCGATTTACAGGGAGAAGCTCGGCAACGTGGAGTCGGTTTAT
GTCATCGACCCTGAAGATGTGGCCCTTCTCTTTAAGTCCGAGGGCCCCAACCCAGAACGA
TTCCTCATCCCGCCCTGGGTCGCCTATCACCAGTATTACCAGAGACCCATAGGAGTCCTG
TTGAAGAAGTCGGCAGCCTGGAAGAAAGACCGGGTGGCCCTGAACCAGGAGGTGATGGCT
CCAGAGGCCACCAAGAACTTTTTGCCCCTGTTGGATGCAGTGTCTCGGGACTTCGTCAGT
GTCCTGCACAGGCGCATCAAGAAGGCGGGCTCCGGAAATTACTCGGGGGACATCAGTGAT
GACCTGTTCCGCTTTGCCTTTGAGTCCATCACTAACGTCATTTTTGGGGAGCGCCAGGGG
ATGCTGGAGGAAGTAGTGAACCCCGAGGCCCAGCGATTCATTGATGCCATCTACCAGATG
TTCCACACCAGCGTCCCCATGCTCAACCTTCCCCCAGACCTGTTCCGTCTGTTCAGGACC
AAGACCTGGAAGGACCATGTGGCTGCATGGGACGTGATTTTCAGTAAAGCTGACATATAC
ACCCAGAACTTCTACTGGGAATTGAGACAGAAAGGAAGTGTTCACCACGATTACCGTGGC
ATCCTCTACAGACTCCTGGGAGACAGCAAGATGTCCTTCGAGGACATCAAGGCCAACGTC
ACAGAGATGCTGGCAGGAGGGGTGGACACGACGTCCATGACCCTGCAGTGGCACTTGTAT
GAGATGGCACGCAACCTGAAGGTGCAGGATATGCTGCGGGCAGAGGTCTTGGCTGCGCGG
CACCAGGCCCAGGGAGACATGGCCACGATGCTACAGCTGGTCCCCCTCCTCAAAGCCAGC
ATCAAGGAGACACTAAGACTTCACCCCATCTCCGTGACCCTGCAGAGATATCTTGTAAAT
GACTTGGTTCTTCGAGATTACATGATTCCTGCCAAGACACTGGTGCAAGTGGCCATCTAT
GCTCTGGGCCGAGAGCCCACCTTCTTCTTCGACCCGGAAAATTTTGACCCAACCCGATGG
CTGAGCAAAGACAAGAACATCACCTACTTCCGGAACTTGGGCTTTGGCTGGGGTGTGCGG
CAGTGTCTGGGACGGCGGATCGCTGAGCTAGAGATGACCATCTTCCTCATCAATATGCTG
GAGAACTTCAGAGTTGAAATCCAACACCTCAGCGATGTGGGCACCACATTCAACCTCATT
CTGATGCCTGAAAAGCCCATCTCCTTCACCTTCTGGCCCTTTAACCAGGAAGCAACCCAG
CAGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 521
Molecular Weight 60101.87
Theoretical pI 8.834
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial
MLAKGLPPRSVLVKGCQTFLSAPREGLGRLRVPTGEGAGISTRSPRPFNEIPSPGDNGWL
NLYHFWRETGTHKVHLHHVQNFQKYGPIYREKLGNVESVYVIDPEDVALLFKSEGPNPER
FLIPPWVAYHQYYQRPIGVLLKKSAAWKKDRVALNQEVMAPEATKNFLPLLDAVSRDFVS
VLHRRIKKAGSGNYSGDISDDLFRFAFESITNVIFGERQGMLEEVVNPEAQRFIDAIYQM
FHTSVPMLNLPPDLFRLFRTKTWKDHVAAWDVIFSKADIYTQNFYWELRQKGSVHHDYRG
ILYRLLGDSKMSFEDIKANVTEMLAGGVDTTSMTLQWHLYEMARNLKVQDMLRAEVLAAR
HQAQGDMATMLQLVPLLKASIKETLRLHPISVTLQRYLVNDLVLRDYMIPAKTLVQVAIY
ALGREPTFFFDPENFDPTRWLSKDKNITYFRNLGFGWGVRQCLGRRIAELEMTIFLINML
ENFRVEIQHLSDVGTTFNLILMPEKPISFTFWPFNQEATQQ
GenBank ID Protein 158258032
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P05108
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CP11A_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AK292300
GeneCard ID CYP11A1
GenAtlas ID CYP11A1
HGNC ID HGNC:2590
References
General References
  1. Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T, Sugano S: Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs. Nat Genet. 2004 Jan;36(1):40-5. Epub 2003 Dec 21. [PubMed:14702039 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, Sklar P, Ardlie K, Patil N, Shaw N, Lane CR, Lim EP, Kalyanaraman N, Nemesh J, Ziaugra L, Friedland L, Rolfe A, Warrington J, Lipshutz R, Daley GQ, Lander ES: Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):231-8. [PubMed:10391209 ]
  4. Chung BC, Matteson KJ, Voutilainen R, Mohandas TK, Miller WL: Human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc: cDNA cloning, assignment of the gene to chromosome 15, and expression in the placenta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec;83(23):8962-6. [PubMed:3024157 ]
  5. Morohashi K, Sogawa K, Omura T, Fujii-Kuriyama Y: Gene structure of human cytochrome P-450(SCC), cholesterol desmolase. J Biochem. 1987 Apr;101(4):879-87. [PubMed:3038854 ]
  6. Hu MC, Guo IC, Lin JH, Chung BC: Regulated expression of cytochrome P-450scc (cholesterol-side-chain cleavage enzyme) in cultured cell lines detected by antibody against bacterially expressed human protein. Biochem J. 1991 Mar 15;274 ( Pt 3):813-7. [PubMed:1849407 ]
  7. Matteson KJ, Chung BC, Urdea MS, Miller WL: Study of cholesterol side-chain cleavage (20,22 desmolase) deficiency causing congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia using bovine-sequence P450scc oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes. Endocrinology. 1986 Apr;118(4):1296-305. [PubMed:2419119 ]
  8. Tajima T, Fujieda K, Kouda N, Nakae J, Miller WL: Heterozygous mutation in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc) gene in a patient with 46,XY sex reversal and adrenal insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;86(8):3820-5. [PubMed:11502818 ]
  9. Katsumata N, Ohtake M, Hojo T, Ogawa E, Hara T, Sato N, Tanaka T: Compound heterozygous mutations in the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme gene (CYP11A) cause congenital adrenal insufficiency in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Aug;87(8):3808-13. [PubMed:12161514 ]