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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00765
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6041
  • HMDBP04261
Name Pyruvate kinase isozymes R/L
Synonyms
  1. Pyruvate kinase 1
  2. R-type/L-type pyruvate kinase
  3. Red cell/liver pyruvate kinase
Gene Name PKLR
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific Function Plays a key role in glycolysis (By similarity).
Pathways
  • Fanconi-bickel syndrome
  • Glycogenosis, Type VII. Tarui disease
  • glycolysis
  • Glycolysis
  • Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
  • Insulin signaling pathway
  • Leigh Syndrome
  • Maturity onset diabetes of the young
  • Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2
  • Purine metabolism
  • Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)
  • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency
  • Pyruvate Metabolism
  • Pyruvate metabolism
  • Type II diabetes mellitus
  • Warburg Effect
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → ADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
Guanosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → dADP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
dGTP + Pyruvic acid → dGDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
Nucleoside triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → NDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
ATP biosynthetic process
response to other organism
response to heat
response to ATP
glycolysis
endocrine pancreas development
response to nutrient
cellular response to insulin stimulus
response to glucose stimulus
energy reserve metabolic process
positive regulation of cellular metabolic process
response to hypoxia
pyruvate biosynthetic process
response to cAMP
response to lithium ion
Cellular Component
cytosol
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring phosphorus-containing groups
kinase activity
magnesium ion binding
alkali metal ion binding
potassium ion binding
pyruvate kinase activity
Molecular Function
potassium ion binding
pyruvate kinase activity
magnesium ion binding
ATP binding
Process
metabolic process
small molecule metabolic process
alcohol metabolic process
monosaccharide metabolic process
hexose metabolic process
glucose metabolic process
glucose catabolic process
glycolysis
Cellular Location Not Available
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 1
Locus 1q21
SNPs PKLR
Gene Sequence
>1725 bp
ATGTCGATCCAGGAGAACATATCATCCCTGCAGCTTCGGTCATGGGTCTCTAAGTCCCAA
AGAGACTTAGCAAAGTCCATCCTGATTGGGGCTCCAGGAGGGCCAGCGGGGTATCTGCGG
CGGGCCAGTGTGGCCCAACTGACCCAGGAGCTGGGCACTGCCTTCTTCCAGCAGCAGCAG
CTGCCAGCTGCTATGGCAGACACCTTCCTGGAACACCTCTGCCTACTGGACATTGACTCC
GAGCCCGTGGCTGCTCGCAGTACCAGCATCATTGCCACCATCGGGCCAGCATCTCGCTCC
GTGGAGCGCCTCAAGGAGATGATCAAGGCCGGGATGAACATTGCGCGACTCAACTTCTCC
CACGGCTCCCACGAGTACCATGCTGAGTCCATCGCCAACGTCCGGGAGGCGGTGGAGAGC
TTTGCAGGTTCCCCACTCAGCTACCGGCCCGTGGCCATCGCCCTGGACACCAAGGGACCG
GAGATCCGCACTGGGATCCTGCAGGGGGGTCCAGAGTCGGAAGTGGAGCTGGTGAAGGGC
TCCCAGGTGCTGGTGACTGTGGACCCCGCGTTCCGGACGCGGGGGAACGCGAACACCGTG
TGGGTGGACTACCCCAATATTGTCCGGGTCGTGCCGGTGGGGGGCCGCATCTACATTGAC
GACGGGCTCATCTCCCTAGTGGTCCAGAAAATCGGCCCAGAGGGACTGGTGACCCAAGTG
GAGAACGGCGGCGTCCTGGGCAGCCGGAAGGGCGTGAACTTGCCAGGGGCCCAGGTGGAC
TTGCCCGGGCTGTCCGAGCAGGACGTCCGAGACCTGCGCTTCGGGGTGGAGCATGGGGTG
GACATCGTCTTTGCCTCCTTTGTGCGGAAAGCCAGCGACGTGGCTGCCGTCAGGGCTGCT
CTGGGTCCGGAAGGACACGGCATCAAGATCATCAGCAAAATTGAGAACCACGAAGGCGTG
AAGAGGTTTGATGAAATCCTGGAGGTGAGCGACGGCATCATGGTGGCACGGGGGGACCTA
GGCATCGAGATCCCAGCAGAGAAGGTTTTCCTGGCTCAGAAGATGATGATTGGGCGCTGC
AACTTGGCGGGCAAGCCTGTTGTCTGTGCCACACAGATGCTGGAGAGCATGATTACCAAG
CCCCGGCCAACGAGGGCAGAGACAAGCGATGTCGCCAATGCTGTGCTGGATGGGGCTGAC
TGCATCATGCTGTCAGGGGAGACTGCCAAGGGCAACTTCCCTGTGGAAGCGGTGAAGATG
CAGCATGCGATTGCCCGGGAGGCAGAGGCCGCAGTGTACCACCGGCAGCTGTTTGAGGAG
CTACGTCGGGCAGCGCCACTAAGCCGTGATCCCACTGAGGTCACCGCCATTGGTGCTGTG
GAGGCTGCCTTCAAGTGCTGTGCTGCTGCCATCATTGTGCTGACCACAACTGGCCGCTCA
GCCCAGCTTCTGTCTCGGTACCGACCTCGGGCAGCAGTCATTGCTGTCACCCGCTCTGCC
CAGGCTGCCCGCCAGGTCCACTTATGCCGAGGAGTCTTCCCCTTGCTTTACCGTGAACCT
CCAGAAGCCATCTGGGCAGATGATGTAGATCGCCGGGTGCAATTTGGCATTGAAAGTGGA
AAGCTCCGTGGCTTCCTCCGTGTTGGAGACCTGGTGATTGTGGTGACAGGCTGGCGACCT
GGCTCCGGCTACACCAACATCATGAGGGTGCTAAGCATATCCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 574
Molecular Weight 61829.575
Theoretical pI 7.745
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Pyruvate kinase isozymes R/L
MSIQENISSLQLRSWVSKSQRDLAKSILIGAPGGPAGYLRRASVAQLTQELGTAFFQQQQ
LPAAMADTFLEHLCLLDIDSEPVAARSTSIIATIGPASRSVERLKEMIKAGMNIARLNFS
HGSHEYHAESIANVREAVESFAGSPLSYRPVAIALDTKGPEIRTGILQGGPESEVELVKG
SQVLVTVDPAFRTRGNANTVWVDYPNIVRVVPVGGRIYIDDGLISLVVQKIGPEGLVTQV
ENGGVLGSRKGVNLPGAQVDLPGLSEQDVRDLRFGVEHGVDIVFASFVRKASDVAAVRAA
LGPEGHGIKIISKIENHEGVKRFDEILEVSDGIMVARGDLGIEIPAEKVFLAQKMMIGRC
NLAGKPVVCATQMLESMITKPRPTRAETSDVANAVLDGADCIMLSGETAKGNFPVEAVKM
QHAIAREAEAAVYHRQLFEELRRAAPLSRDPTEVTAIGAVEAAFKCCAAAIIVLTTTGRS
AQLLSRYRPRAAVIAVTRSAQAARQVHLCRGVFPLLYREPPEAIWADDVDRRVQFGIESG
KLRGFLRVGDLVIVVTGWRPGSGYTNIMRVLSIS
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P30613
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name KPYR_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AB015983
GeneCard ID PKLR
GenAtlas ID PKLR
HGNC ID HGNC:9020
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  3. Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M: Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks. Cell. 2006 Nov 3;127(3):635-48. [PubMed:17081983 ]
  4. Kanno H, Fujii H, Hirono A, Miwa S: cDNA cloning of human R-type pyruvate kinase and identification of a single amino acid substitution (Thr384----Met) affecting enzymatic stability in a pyruvate kinase variant (PK Tokyo) associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Sep 15;88(18):8218-21. [PubMed:1896471 ]
  5. Tani K, Fujii H, Nagata S, Miwa S: Human liver type pyruvate kinase: complete amino acid sequence and the expression in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Mar;85(6):1792-5. [PubMed:3126495 ]
  6. Tani K, Fujii H, Tsutsumi H, Sukegawa J, Toyoshima K, Yoshida MC, Noguchi T, Tanaka T, Miwa S: Human liver type pyruvate kinase: cDNA cloning and chromosomal assignment. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Mar 13;143(2):431-8. [PubMed:3566732 ]
  7. Kanno H, Fujii H, Tsujino G, Miwa S: Molecular basis of impaired pyruvate kinase isozyme conversion in erythroid cells: a single amino acid substitution near the active site and decreased mRNA content of the R-type PK. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Apr 15;192(1):46-52. [PubMed:8476433 ]
  8. Beutler E, Baronciani L: Mutations in pyruvate kinase. Hum Mutat. 1996;7(1):1-6. [PubMed:8664896 ]
  9. Baronciani L, Bianchi P, Zanella A: Hematologically important mutations: red cell pyruvate kinase. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 1996;22(1):85-9. [PubMed:8807089 ]
  10. Baronciani L, Bianchi P, Zanella A: Hematologically important mutations: red cell pyruvate kinase (1st update). Blood Cells Mol Dis. 1996;22(3):259-64. [PubMed:9075576 ]
  11. Baronciani L, Bianchi P, Zanella A: Hematologically important mutations: red cell pyruvate kinase (2nd update). Blood Cells Mol Dis. 1998 Sep;24(3):273-9. [PubMed:10087985 ]
  12. Bianchi P, Zanella A: Hematologically important mutations: red cell pyruvate kinase (Third update). Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2000 Feb;26(1):47-53. [PubMed:10772876 ]
  13. Valentini G, Chiarelli LR, Fortin R, Dolzan M, Galizzi A, Abraham DJ, Wang C, Bianchi P, Zanella A, Mattevi A: Structure and function of human erythrocyte pyruvate kinase. Molecular basis of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 28;277(26):23807-14. Epub 2002 Apr 17. [PubMed:11960989 ]
  14. Neubauer B, Lakomek M, Winkler H, Parke M, Hofferbert S, Schroter W: Point mutations in the L-type pyruvate kinase gene of two children with hemolytic anemia caused by pyruvate kinase deficiency. Blood. 1991 May 1;77(9):1871-5. [PubMed:2018831 ]
  15. Kanno H, Fujii H, Hirono A, Omine M, Miwa S: Identical point mutations of the R-type pyruvate kinase (PK) cDNA found in unrelated PK variants associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood. 1992 Mar 1;79(5):1347-50. [PubMed:1536957 ]
  16. Kanno H, Fujii H, Miwa S: Low substrate affinity of pyruvate kinase variant (PK Sapporo) caused by a single amino acid substitution (426 Arg-->Gln) associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood. 1993 May 1;81(9):2439-41. [PubMed:8481523 ]
  17. Baronciani L, Beutler E: Analysis of pyruvate kinase-deficiency mutations that produce nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 May 1;90(9):4324-7. [PubMed:8483951 ]
  18. Kanno H, Ballas SK, Miwa S, Fujii H, Bowman HS: Molecular abnormality of erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency in the Amish. Blood. 1994 Apr 15;83(8):2311-6. [PubMed:8161798 ]
  19. Lenzner C, Nurnberg P, Thiele BJ, Reis A, Brabec V, Sakalova A, Jacobasch G: Mutations in the pyruvate kinase L gene in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood. 1994 May 15;83(10):2817-22. [PubMed:8180378 ]
  20. Baronciani L, Beutler E: Molecular study of pyruvate kinase deficient patients with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. J Clin Invest. 1995 Apr;95(4):1702-9. [PubMed:7706479 ]
  21. Beutler E, Westwood B, van Zwieten R, Roos D: G-->T transition at cDNA nt 110 (K37Q) in the PKLR (pyruvate kinase) gene is the molecular basis of a case of hereditary increase of red blood cell ATP. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(3):282-5. [PubMed:9090535 ]
  22. Zarza R, Alvarez R, Pujades A, Nomdedeu B, Carrera A, Estella J, Remacha A, Sanchez JM, Morey M, Cortes T, Perez Lungmus G, Bureo E, Vives Corrons JL: Molecular characterization of the PK-LR gene in pyruvate kinase deficient Spanish patients. Red Cell Pathology Group of the Spanish Society of Haematology (AEHH). Br J Haematol. 1998 Nov;103(2):377-82. [PubMed:9827908 ]
  23. Cohen-Solal M, Prehu C, Wajcman H, Poyart C, Bardakdjian-Michau J, Kister J, Prome D, Valentin C, Bachir D, Galacteros F: A new sickle cell disease phenotype associating Hb S trait, severe pyruvate kinase deficiency (PK Conakry), and an alpha2 globin gene variant (Hb Conakry). Br J Haematol. 1998 Dec;103(4):950-6. [PubMed:9886305 ]
  24. Pastore L, Della Morte R, Frisso G, Alfinito F, Vitale D, Calise RM, Ferraro F, Zagari A, Rotoli B, Salvatore F: Novel mutations and structural implications in R-type pyruvate kinase-deficient patients from Southern Italy. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(2):127-34. [PubMed:9482576 ]
  25. Zanella A, Bianchi P, Fermo E, Iurlo A, Zappa M, Vercellati C, Boschetti C, Baronciani L, Cotton F: Molecular characterization of the PK-LR gene in sixteen pyruvate kinase-deficient patients. Br J Haematol. 2001 Apr;113(1):43-8. [PubMed:11328279 ]
  26. van Wijk R, Huizinga EG, van Wesel AC, van Oirschot BA, Hadders MA, van Solinge WW: Fifteen novel mutations in PKLR associated with pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency: structural implications of amino acid substitutions in PK. Hum Mutat. 2009 Mar;30(3):446-53. doi: 10.1002/humu.20915. [PubMed:19085939 ]