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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00776
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6055
Name Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase
Synonyms
  1. Acid sphingomyelinase
  2. aSMase
Gene Name SMPD1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific Function Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Pathways
  • Lysosome
  • sphingolipid metabolism
Reactions
Sphingomyelin + Water → N-acylsphingosine + Phosphorylcholine details
Sphingomyelin + Water → N-Acylsphingosine + Phosphorylcholine details
GO Classification
Biological Process
signal transduction
positive regulation of apoptotic process
ceramide biosynthetic process
negative regulation of MAP kinase activity
positive regulation of protein dephosphorylation
response to cocaine
sphingomyelin catabolic process
sphingomyelin metabolic process
termination of signal transduction
response to drug
nervous system development
glycosphingolipid metabolic process
cell death
Cellular Component
lamellar body
lysosomal lumen
extracellular space
Function
hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activity
lipase activity
phospholipase activity
Molecular Function
hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds
sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activity
Process
metabolic process
sphingomyelin metabolic process
sphingomyelin catabolic process
organophosphate metabolic process
phospholipid metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Lysosome
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 11
Locus 11p15.4-p15.1
SNPs SMPD1
Gene Sequence
>1890 bp
ATGCCCCGCTACGGAGCGTCACTCCGCCAGAGCTGCCCCAGGTCCGGCCGGGAGCAGGGA
CAAGACGGGACCGCCGGAGCCCCCGGACTCCTTTGGATGGGCCTGGTGCTGGCGCTGGCG
CTGGCGCTGGCGCTGGCTCTGTCTGACTCTCGGGTTCTCTGGGCTCCGGCAGAGGCTCAC
CCTCTTTCTCCCCAAGGCCATCCTGCCAGGTTACATCGCATAGTGCCCCGGCTCCGAGAT
GTCTTTGGGTGGGGGAACCTCACCTGCCCAATCTGCAAAGGTCTATTCACCGCCATCAAC
CTCGGGCTGAAGAAGGAACCCAATGTGGCTCGCGTGGGCTCCGTGGCCATCAAGCTGTGC
AATCTGCTGAAGATAGCACCACCTGCCGTGTGCCAATCCATTGTCCACCTCTTTGAGGAT
GACATGGTGGAGGTGTGGAGACGCTCAGTGCTGAGCCCATCTGAGGCCTGTGGCCTGCTC
CTGGGCTCCACCTGTGGGCACTGGGACATTTTCTCATCTTGGAACATCTCTTTGCCTACT
GTGCCGAAGCCGCCCCCCAAACCCCCTAGCCCCCCAGCCCCAGGTGCCCCTGTCAGCCGC
ATCCTCTTCCTCACTGACCTGCACTGGGATCATGACTACCTGGAGGGCACGGACCCTGAC
TGTGCAGACCCACTGTGCTGCCGCCGGGGTTCTGGCCTGCCGCCCGCATCCCGGCCAGGT
GCCGGATACTGGGGCGAATACAGCAAGTGTGACCTGCCCCTGAGGACCCTGGAGAGCCTG
TTGAGTGGGCTGGGCCCAGCCGGCCCTTTTGATATGGTGTACTGGACAGGAGACATCCCC
GCACATGATGTCTGGCACCAGACTCGTCAGGACCAACTGCGGGCCCTGACCACCGTCACA
GCACTTGTGAGGAAGTTCCTGGGGCCAGTGCCAGTGTACCCTGCTGTGGGTAACCATGAA
AGCATACCTGTCAATAGCTTCCCTCCCCCCTTCATTGAGGGCAACCACTCCTCCCGCTGG
CTCTATGAAGCGATGGCCAAGGCTTGGGAGCCCTGGCTGCCTGCCGAAGCCCTGCGCACC
CTCAGAATTGGGGGGTTCTATGCTCTTTCCCCATACCCCGGTCTCCGCCTCATCTCTCTC
AATATGAATTTTTGTTCCCGTGAGAACTTCTGGCTCTTGATCAACTCCACGGATCCCGCA
GGACAGCTCCAGTGGCTGGTGGGGGAGCTTCAGGCTGCTGAGGATCGAGGAGACAAAGTG
CATATAATTGGCCACATTCCCCCAGGGCACTGTCTGAAGAGCTGGAGCTGGAATTATTAC
CGAATTGTAGCCAGGTATGAGAACACCCTGGCTGCTCAGTTCTTTGGCCACACTCATGTG
GATGAATTTGAGGTCTTCTATGATGAAGAGACTCTGAGCCGGCCGCTGGCTGTAGCCTTC
CTGGCACCCAGTGCAACTACCTACATCGGCCTTAATCCTGGTTACCGTGTGTACCAAATA
GATGGAAACTACTCCAGGAGCTCTCACGTGGTCCTGGACCATGAGACCTACATCCTGAAT
CTGACCCAGGCAAACATACCGGGAGCCATACCGCACTGGCAGCTTCTCTACAGGGCTCGA
GAAACCTATGGGCTGCCCAACACACTGCCTACCGCCTGGCACAACCTGGTATATCGCATG
CGGGGCGACATGCAACTTTTCCAGACCTTCTGGTTTCTCTACCATAAGGGCCACCCACCC
TCGGAGCCCTGTGGCACGCCCTGCCGTCTGGCTACTCTTTGTGCCCAGCTCTCTGCCCGT
GCTGACAGCCCTGCTCTGTGCCGCCACCTGATGCCAGATGGGAGCCTCCCAGAGGCCCAG
AGCCTGTGGCCAAGGCCACTGTTTTGCTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 629
Molecular Weight 69935.53
Theoretical pI 7.29
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase
MPRYGASLRQSCPRSGREQGQDGTAGAPGLLWMGLVLALALALALALSDSRVLWAPAEAH
PLSPQGHPARLHRIVPRLRDVFGWGNLTCPICKGLFTAINLGLKKEPNVARVGSVAIKLC
NLLKIAPPAVCQSIVHLFEDDMVEVWRRSVLSPSEACGLLLGSTCGHWDIFSSWNISLPT
VPKPPPKPPSPPAPGAPVSRILFLTDLHWDHDYLEGTDPDCADPLCCRRGSGLPPASRPG
AGYWGEYSKCDLPLRTLESLLSGLGPAGPFDMVYWTGDIPAHDVWHQTRQDQLRALTTVT
ALVRKFLGPVPVYPAVGNHESTPVNSFPPPFIEGNHSSRWLYEAMAKAWEPWLPAEALRT
LRIGGFYALSPYPGLRLISLNMNFCSRENFWLLINSTDPAGQLQWLVGELQAAEDRGDKV
HIIGHIPPGHCLKSWSWNYYRIVARYENTLAAQFFGHTHVDEFEVFYDEETLSRPLAVAF
LAPSATTYIGLNPGYRVYQIDGNYSGSSHVVLDHETYILNLTQANIPGAIPHWQLLYRAR
ETYGLPNTLPTAWHNLVYRMRGDMQLFQTFWFLYHKGHPPSEPCGTPCRLATLCAQLSAR
ADSPALCRHLMPDGSLPEAQSLWPRPLFC
GenBank ID Protein 179095
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P17405
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ASM_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID M59916
GeneCard ID SMPD1
GenAtlas ID SMPD1
HGNC ID HGNC:11120
References
General References
  1. Taylor TD, Noguchi H, Totoki Y, Toyoda A, Kuroki Y, Dewar K, Lloyd C, Itoh T, Takeda T, Kim DW, She X, Barlow KF, Bloom T, Bruford E, Chang JL, Cuomo CA, Eichler E, FitzGerald MG, Jaffe DB, LaButti K, Nicol R, Park HS, Seaman C, Sougnez C, Yang X, Zimmer AR, Zody MC, Birren BW, Nusbaum C, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Rogers J, Lander ES, Sakaki Y: Human chromosome 11 DNA sequence and analysis including novel gene identification. Nature. 2006 Mar 23;440(7083):497-500. [PubMed:16554811 ]
  2. Schuchman EH, Suchi M, Takahashi T, Sandhoff K, Desnick RJ: Human acid sphingomyelinase. Isolation, nucleotide sequence and expression of the full-length and alternatively spliced cDNAs. J Biol Chem. 1991 May 5;266(13):8531-9. [PubMed:1840600 ]
  3. Newrzella D, Stoffel W: Molecular cloning of the acid sphingomyelinase of the mouse and the organization and complete nucleotide sequence of the gene. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1992 Dec;373(12):1233-8. [PubMed:1292508 ]
  4. Schuchman EH, Levran O, Pereira LV, Desnick RJ: Structural organization and complete nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding human acid sphingomyelinase (SMPD1). Genomics. 1992 Feb;12(2):197-205. [PubMed:1740330 ]
  5. Ida H, Rennert OM, Eto Y, Chan WY: Cloning of a human acid sphingomyelinase cDNA with a new mutation that renders the enzyme inactive. J Biochem. 1993 Jul;114(1):15-20. [PubMed:8407868 ]
  6. Quintern LE, Schuchman EH, Levran O, Suchi M, Ferlinz K, Reinke H, Sandhoff K, Desnick RJ: Isolation of cDNA clones encoding human acid sphingomyelinase: occurrence of alternatively processed transcripts. EMBO J. 1989 Sep;8(9):2469-73. [PubMed:2555181 ]
  7. Ferlinz K, Hurwitz R, Moczall H, Lansmann S, Schuchman EH, Sandhoff K: Functional characterization of the N-glycosylation sites of human acid sphingomyelinase by site-directed mutagenesis. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Jan 15;243(1-2):511-7. [PubMed:9030779 ]
  8. Lansmann S, Schuette CG, Bartelsen O, Hoernschemeyer J, Linke T, Weisgerber J, Sandhoff K: Human acid sphingomyelinase. Eur J Biochem. 2003 Mar;270(6):1076-88. [PubMed:12631268 ]
  9. Dastani Z, Ruel IL, Engert JC, Genest J Jr, Marcil M: Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase-1 (SMPD1) coding variants do not contribute to low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. BMC Med Genet. 2007 Dec 18;8:79. [PubMed:18088425 ]
  10. Ferlinz K, Hurwitz R, Sandhoff K: Molecular basis of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in a patient with Niemann-Pick disease type A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991 Sep 30;179(3):1187-91. [PubMed:1718266 ]
  11. Levran O, Desnick RJ, Schuchman EH: Niemann-Pick disease: a frequent missense mutation in the acid sphingomyelinase gene of Ashkenazi Jewish type A and B patients. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 1;88(9):3748-52. [PubMed:2023926 ]
  12. Levran O, Desnick RJ, Schuchman EH: Niemann-Pick type B disease. Identification of a single codon deletion in the acid sphingomyelinase gene and genotype/phenotype correlations in type A and B patients. J Clin Invest. 1991 Sep;88(3):806-10. [PubMed:1885770 ]
  13. Levran O, Desnick RJ, Schuchman EH: Identification and expression of a common missense mutation (L302P) in the acid sphingomyelinase gene of Ashkenazi Jewish type A Niemann-Pick disease patients. Blood. 1992 Oct 15;80(8):2081-7. [PubMed:1391960 ]
  14. Takahashi T, Desnick RJ, Takada G, Schuchman EH: Identification of a missense mutation (S436R) in the acid sphingomyelinase gene from a Japanese patient with type B Niemann-Pick disease. Hum Mutat. 1992;1(1):70-1. [PubMed:1301192 ]
  15. Takahashi T, Suchi M, Desnick RJ, Takada G, Schuchman EH: Identification and expression of five mutations in the human acid sphingomyelinase gene causing types A and B Niemann-Pick disease. Molecular evidence for genetic heterogeneity in the neuronopathic and non-neuronopathic forms. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 25;267(18):12552-8. [PubMed:1618760 ]
  16. Sperl W, Bart G, Vanier MT, Christomanou H, Baldissera I, Steichen-Gersdorf E, Paschke E: A family with visceral course of Niemann-Pick disease, macular halo syndrome and low sphingomyelin degradation rate. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1994;17(1):93-103. [PubMed:8051942 ]
  17. Schuchman EH: Two new mutations in the acid sphingomyelinase gene causing type a Niemann-pick disease: N389T and R441X. Hum Mutat. 1995;6(4):352-4. [PubMed:8680412 ]
  18. Takahashi T, Suchi M, Sato W, Ten SB, Sakuragawa N, Desnick RJ, Schuchman EH, Takada G: Identification and expression of a missense mutation (Y446C) in the acid sphingomyelinase gene from a Japanese patient with type A Niemann-Pick disease. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1995 Oct;177(2):117-23. [PubMed:8693491 ]
  19. Ida H, Rennert OM, Maekawa K, Eto Y: Identification of three novel mutations in the acid sphinogomyelinase gene of Japanese patients with Niemann-Pick disease type A and B. Hum Mutat. 1996;7(1):65-7. [PubMed:8664904 ]
  20. Pavlu H, Elleder M: Two novel mutations in patients with atypical phenotypes of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1997 Aug;20(4):615-6. [PubMed:9266408 ]
  21. Simonaro CM, Desnick RJ, McGovern MM, Wasserstein MP, Schuchman EH: The demographics and distribution of type B Niemann-Pick disease: novel mutations lead to new genotype/phenotype correlations. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Dec;71(6):1413-9. Epub 2002 Oct 4. [PubMed:12369017 ]
  22. Sikora J, Pavlu-Pereira H, Elleder M, Roelofs H, Wevers RA: Seven novel acid sphingomyelinase gene mutations in Niemann-Pick type A and B patients. Ann Hum Genet. 2003 Jan;67(Pt 1):63-70. [PubMed:12556236 ]
  23. Ricci V, Stroppiano M, Corsolini F, Di Rocco M, Parenti G, Regis S, Grossi S, Biancheri R, Mazzotti R, Filocamo M: Screening of 25 Italian patients with Niemann-Pick A reveals fourteen new mutations, one common and thirteen private, in SMPD1. Hum Mutat. 2004 Jul;24(1):105. [PubMed:15221801 ]
  24. Pittis MG, Ricci V, Guerci VI, Marcais C, Ciana G, Dardis A, Gerin F, Stroppiano M, Vanier MT, Filocamo M, Bembi B: Acid sphingomyelinase: identification of nine novel mutations among Italian Niemann Pick type B patients and characterization of in vivo functional in-frame start codon. Hum Mutat. 2004 Aug;24(2):186-7. [PubMed:15241805 ]
  25. Dardis A, Zampieri S, Filocamo M, Burlina A, Bembi B, Pittis MG: Functional in vitro characterization of 14 SMPD1 mutations identified in Italian patients affected by Niemann Pick Type B disease. Hum Mutat. 2005 Aug;26(2):164. [PubMed:16010684 ]
  26. Pavlu-Pereira H, Asfaw B, Poupctova H, Ledvinova J, Sikora J, Vanier MT, Sandhoff K, Zeman J, Novotna Z, Chudoba D, Elleder M: Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency. Phenotype variability with prevalence of intermediate phenotype in a series of twenty-five Czech and Slovak patients. A multi-approach study. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(2):203-27. [PubMed:15877209 ]
  27. Mussig K, Harzer K, Mayrhofer H, Krageloh-Mann I, Haring HU, Machicao F: Clinical findings in Niemann-Pick disease type B. Intern Med J. 2006 Feb;36(2):135-6. [PubMed:16472269 ]
  28. Rodriguez-Pascau L, Gort L, Schuchman EH, Vilageliu L, Grinberg D, Chabas A: Identification and characterization of SMPD1 mutations causing Niemann-Pick types A and B in Spanish patients. Hum Mutat. 2009 Jul;30(7):1117-22. doi: 10.1002/humu.21018. [PubMed:19405096 ]