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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00779
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6059
  • HMDBP03409
Name Cystathionine beta-synthase
Synonyms
  1. Beta-thionase
  2. Serine sulfhydrase
Gene Name CBS
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in cysteine biosynthetic process from serine
Specific Function Only known pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that contains heme. Important regulator of hydrogen sulfide, especially in the brain, utilizing cysteine instead of serine to catalyze the formation of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is a gastratransmitter with signaling and cytoprotective effects such as acting as a neuromodulator in the brain to protect neurons against hypoxic injury (By similarity).
Pathways
  • 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Deficiency
  • Cysteine and methionine metabolism
  • Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)
  • Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Gamma-cystathionase deficiency (CTH)
  • Glycine and Serine Metabolism
  • Glycine N-methyltransferase Deficiency
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Homocysteine Degradation
  • Homocystinuria, cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency
  • Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation type
  • Hyperglycinemia, non-ketotic
  • Hypermethioninemia
  • L-cysteine biosynthesis
  • Methionine Adenosyltransferase Deficiency
  • Methionine Metabolism
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)
  • Non Ketotic Hyperglycinemia
  • S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase Deficiency
  • Sarcosinemia
  • Selenoamino Acid Metabolism
Reactions
L-Serine + Homocysteine → L-Cystathionine + Water details
L-Serine + Hydrogen sulfide → L-Cysteine + Water details
L-Serine + Selenohomocysteine → Selenocystathionine + Water details
GO Classification
Biological Process
L-serine catabolic process
regulation of cGMP metabolic process
regulation of JUN kinase activity
response to folic acid
superoxide metabolic process
transsulfuration
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
regulation of blood vessel size
blood vessel remodeling
maternal process involved in female pregnancy
cartilage development involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis
cerebellum morphogenesis
cysteine biosynthetic process from serine
cysteine biosynthetic process via cystathionine
endochondral ossification
homocysteine catabolic process
hydrogen sulfide biosynthetic process
L-cysteine catabolic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
nucleolus
Component
cell part
intracellular part
cytoplasm
Function
binding
catalytic activity
lyase activity
carbon-oxygen lyase activity
hydro-lyase activity
cofactor binding
pyridoxal phosphate binding
cystathionine beta-synthase activity
Molecular Function
metal ion binding
pyridoxal phosphate binding
heme binding
protein homodimerization activity
cystathionine beta-synthase activity
modified amino acid binding
Process
metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
sulfur amino acid metabolic process
sulfur amino acid biosynthetic process
serine family amino acid metabolic process
cysteine biosynthetic process
cysteine biosynthetic process via cystathionine
l-serine metabolic process
cysteine biosynthetic process from serine
cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process
cellular amino acid metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Nucleus
  2. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 21
Locus 21q22.3
SNPs CBS
Gene Sequence
>1656 bp
ATGCCTTCTGAGACCCCCCAGGCAGAAGTGGGGCCCACAGGCTGCCCCCACCGCTCAGGG
CCACACTCGGCGAAGGGGAGCCTGGAGAAGGGGTCCCCAGAGGATAAGGAAGCCAAGGAG
CCCCTGTGGATCCGGCCCGATGCTCCGAGCAGGTGCACCTGGCAGCTGGGCCGGCCTGCC
TCCGAGTCCCCACATCACCACACTGCCCCGGCAAAATCTCCAAAAATCTTGCCAGATATT
CTGAAGAAAATCGGGGACACCCCTATGGTCAGAATCAACAAGATTGGGAAGAAGTTCGGC
CTGAAGTGTGAGCTCTTGGCCAAGTGTGAGTTCTTCAACGCGGGCGGGAGCGTGAAGGAC
CGCATCAGCCTGCGGATGATTGAGGATGCTGAGCGCGACGGGACGCTGAAGCCCGGGGAC
ACGATTATCGAGCCGACATCCGGGAACACCGGGATCGGGCTGGCCCTGGCTGCGGCAGTG
AGGGGCTATCGCTGCATCATCGTGATGCCAGAGAAGATGAGCTCCGAGAAGGTGGACGTG
CTGCGGGCACTGGGGGCTGAGATTGTGAGGACGCCCACCAATGCCAGGTTCGACTCCCCG
GAGTCACACGTGGGGGTGGCCTGGCGGCTGAAGAACGAAATCCCCAATTCTCACATCCTA
GACCAGTACCGCAACGCCAGCAACCCCCTGGCTCACTACGACACCACCGCTGATGAGATC
CTGCAGCAGTGTGATGGGAAGCTGGACATGCTGGTGGCTTCAGTGGGCACGGGCGGCACC
ATCACGGGCATTGCCAGGAAGCTGAAGGAGAAGTGTCCTGGATGCAGGATCATTGGGGTG
GATCCCGAAGGGTCCATCCTCGCAGAGCCGGAGGAGCTGAACCAGACGGAGCAGACAACC
TACGAGGTGGAAGGGATCGGCTACGACTTCATCCCCACGGTGCTGGACAGGACGGTGGTG
GACAAGTGGTTCAAGAGCAACGATGAGGAGGCGTTCACCTTTGCCCGCATGCTGATCGCG
CAAGAGGGGCTGCTGTGCGGTGGCAGTGCTGGCAGCACGGTGGCGGTGGCCGTGAAGGCT
GCGCAGGAGCTGCAGGAGGGCCAGCGCTGCGTGGTCATTCTGCCCGACTCAGTGCGGAAC
TACATGACCAAGTTCCTGAGCGACAGGTGGATGCTGCAGAAGGGCTTTCTGAAGGAGGAG
GACCTCACGGAGAAGAAGCCCTGGTGGTGGCACCTCCGTGTTCAGGAGCTGGGCCTGTCA
GCCCCGCTGACCGTGCTCCCGACCATCACCTGTGGGCACACCATCGAGATCCTCCGGGAG
AAGGGCTTCGACCAGGCGCCCGTGGTGGATGAGGCGGGGGTAATCCTGGGAATGGTGACG
CTTGGGAACATGCTCTCGTCCCTGCTTGCCGGGAAGGTGCAGCCGTCAGACCAAGTTGGC
AAAGTCATCTACAAGCAGTTCAAACAGATCCGCCTCACGGACACGCTGGGCAGGCTCTCG
CACATCCTGGAGATGGACCACTTCGCCCTGGTGGTGCACGAGCAGATCCAGTACCACAGC
ACCGGGAAGTCCAGTCAGCGGCAGATGGTGTTCGGGGTGGTCACCGCCATTGACTTGCTG
AACTTCGTGGCCGCCCAGGAGCGGGACCAGAAGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 551
Molecular Weight 60586.05
Theoretical pI 6.648
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Cystathionine beta-synthase
MPSETPQAEVGPTGCPHRSGPHSAKGSLEKGSPEDKEAKEPLWIRPDAPSRCTWQLGRPA
SESPHHHTAPAKSPKILPDILKKIGDTPMVRINKIGKKFGLKCELLAKCEFFNAGGSVKD
RISLRMIEDAERDGTLKPGDTIIEPTSGNTGIGLALAAAVRGYRCIIVMPEKMSSEKVDV
LRALGAEIVRTPTNARFDSPESHVGVAWRLKNEIPNSHILDQYRNASNPLAHYDTTADEI
LQQCDGKLDMLVASVGTGGTITGIARKLKEKCPGCRIIGVDPEGSILAEPEELNQTEQTT
YEVEGIGYDFIPTVLDRTVVDKWFKSNDEEAFTFARMLIAQEGLLCGGSAGSTVAVAVKA
AQELQEGQRCVVILPDSVRNYMTKFLSDRWMLQKGFLKEEDLTEKKPWWWHLRVQELGLS
APLTVLPTITCGHTIEILREKGFDQAPVVDEAGVILGMVTLGNMLSSLLAGKVQPSDQVG
KVIYKQFKQIRLTDTLGRLSHILEMDHFALVVHEQIQYHSTGKSSQRQMVFGVVTAIDLL
NFVAAQERDQK
GenBank ID Protein 388716
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P35520
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CBS_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID L19501
GeneCard ID CBS
GenAtlas ID CBS
HGNC ID HGNC:1550
References
General References
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  3. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330 ]
  4. Kraus JP, Le K, Swaroop M, Ohura T, Tahara T, Rosenberg LE, Roper MD, Kozich V: Human cystathionine beta-synthase cDNA: sequence, alternative splicing and expression in cultured cells. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Oct;2(10):1633-8. [PubMed:7903580 ]
  5. Chasse JF, Paly E, Paris D, Paul V, Sinet PM, Kamoun P, London J: Genomic organization of the human cystathionine beta-synthase gene: evidence for various cDNAs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Jun 26;211(3):826-32. [PubMed:7598711 ]
  6. Kruger WD, Cox DR: A yeast system for expression of human cystathionine beta-synthase: structural and functional conservation of the human and yeast genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jul 5;91(14):6614-8. [PubMed:8022826 ]
  7. Chasse JF, Paul V, Escanez R, Kamoun P, London J: Human cystathionine beta-synthase: gene organization and expression of different 5' alternative splicing. Mamm Genome. 1997 Dec;8(12):917-21. [PubMed:9383285 ]
  8. Kraus JP, Oliveriusova J, Sokolova J, Kraus E, Vlcek C, de Franchis R, Maclean KN, Bao L, Bukovsk, Patterson D, Paces V, Ansorge W, Kozich V: The human cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene: complete sequence, alternative splicing, and polymorphisms. Genomics. 1998 Sep 15;52(3):312-24. [PubMed:9790750 ]
  9. Kraus J, Packman S, Fowler B, Rosenberg LE: Purification and properties of cystathionine beta-synthase from human liver. Evidence for identical subunits. J Biol Chem. 1978 Sep 25;253(18):6523-8. [PubMed:681363 ]
  10. Kabil O, Zhou Y, Banerjee R: Human cystathionine beta-synthase is a target for sumoylation. Biochemistry. 2006 Nov 14;45(45):13528-36. [PubMed:17087506 ]
  11. Meier M, Janosik M, Kery V, Kraus JP, Burkhard P: Structure of human cystathionine beta-synthase: a unique pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent heme protein. EMBO J. 2001 Aug 1;20(15):3910-6. [PubMed:11483494 ]
  12. Taoka S, Lepore BW, Kabil O, Ojha S, Ringe D, Banerjee R: Human cystathionine beta-synthase is a heme sensor protein. Evidence that the redox sensor is heme and not the vicinal cysteines in the CXXC motif seen in the crystal structure of the truncated enzyme. Biochemistry. 2002 Aug 20;41(33):10454-61. [PubMed:12173932 ]
  13. Kraus JP, Janosik M, Kozich V, Mandell R, Shih V, Sperandeo MP, Sebastio G, de Franchis R, Andria G, Kluijtmans LA, Blom H, Boers GH, Gordon RB, Kamoun P, Tsai MY, Kruger WD, Koch HG, Ohura T, Gaustadnes M: Cystathionine beta-synthase mutations in homocystinuria. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(5):362-75. [PubMed:10338090 ]
  14. Kozich V, Kraus JP: Screening for mutations by expressing patient cDNA segments in E. coli: homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. Hum Mutat. 1992;1(2):113-23. [PubMed:1301198 ]
  15. Kozich V, de Franchis R, Kraus JP: Molecular defect in a patient with pyridoxine-responsive homocystinuria. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Jun;2(6):815-6. [PubMed:8353501 ]
  16. Hu FL, Gu Z, Kozich V, Kraus JP, Ramesh V, Shih VE: Molecular basis of cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency in pyridoxine responsive and nonresponsive homocystinuria. Hum Mol Genet. 1993 Nov;2(11):1857-60. [PubMed:7506602 ]
  17. de Franchis R, Kozich V, McInnes RR, Kraus JP: Identical genotypes in siblings with different homocystinuric phenotypes: identification of three mutations in cystathionine beta-synthase using an improved bacterial expression system. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Jul;3(7):1103-8. [PubMed:7981678 ]
  18. Marble M, Geraghty MT, de Franchis R, Kraus JP, Valle D: Characterization of a cystathionine beta-synthase allele with three mutations in cis in a patient with B6 nonresponsive homocystinuria. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 Oct;3(10):1883-6. [PubMed:7849717 ]
  19. Kraus JP: Komrower Lecture. Molecular basis of phenotype expression in homocystinuria. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1994;17(4):383-90. [PubMed:7967489 ]
  20. Shih VE, Fringer JM, Mandell R, Kraus JP, Berry GT, Heidenreich RA, Korson MS, Levy HL, Ramesh V: A missense mutation (I278T) in the cystathionine beta-synthase gene prevalent in pyridoxine-responsive homocystinuria and associated with mild clinical phenotype. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Jul;57(1):34-9. [PubMed:7611293 ]
  21. Sebastio G, Sperandeo MP, Panico M, de Franchis R, Kraus JP, Andria G: The molecular basis of homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency in Italian families, and report of four novel mutations. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Jun;56(6):1324-33. [PubMed:7762555 ]
  22. Kluijtmans LA, Blom HJ, Boers GH, van Oost BA, Trijbels FJ, van den Heuvel LP: Two novel missense mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase gene in homocystinuric patients. Hum Genet. 1995 Aug;96(2):249-50. [PubMed:7635485 ]
  23. Kruger WD, Cox DR: A yeast assay for functional detection of mutations in the human cystathionine beta-synthase gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jul;4(7):1155-61. [PubMed:8528202 ]
  24. Sperandeo MP, Panico M, Pepe A, Candito M, de Franchis R, Kraus JP, Andria G, Sebastio G: Molecular analysis of patients affected by homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency: report of a new mutation in exon 8 and a deletion in intron 11. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1995;18(2):211-4. [PubMed:7564249 ]
  25. Kluijtmans LA, Boers GH, Stevens EM, Renier WO, Kraus JP, Trijbels FJ, van den Heuvel LP, Blom HJ: Defective cystathionine beta-synthase regulation by S-adenosylmethionine in a partially pyridoxine responsive homocystinuria patient. J Clin Invest. 1996 Jul 15;98(2):285-9. [PubMed:8755636 ]
  26. Sperandeo MP, Candito M, Sebastio G, Rolland MO, Turc-Carel C, Giudicelli H, Dellamonica P, Andria G: Homocysteine response to methionine challenge in four obligate heterozygotes for homocystinuria and relationship with cystathionine beta-synthase mutations. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1996;19(3):351-6. [PubMed:8803779 ]
  27. Dawson PA, Cox AJ, Emmerson BT, Dudman NP, Kraus JP, Gordon RB: Characterisation of five missense mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase gene from three patients with B6-nonresponsive homocystinuria. Eur J Hum Genet. 1997 Jan-Feb;5(1):15-21. [PubMed:9156316 ]
  28. Kim CE, Gallagher PM, Guttormsen AB, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Ose L, Folling I, Whitehead AS, Tsai MY, Kruger WD: Functional modeling of vitamin responsiveness in yeast: a common pyridoxine-responsive cystathionine beta-synthase mutation in homocystinuria. Hum Mol Genet. 1997 Dec;6(13):2213-21. [PubMed:9361025 ]
  29. Aral B, Coude M, London J, Aupetit J, Chasse JF, Zabot MT, Chadefaux-Vekemans B, Kamoun P: Two novel mutations (K384E and L539S) in the C-terminal moiety of the cystathionine beta-synthase protein in two French pyridoxine-responsive homocystinuria patients. Hum Mutat. 1997;9(1):81-2. [PubMed:8990018 ]
  30. Kozich V, Janosik M, Sokolova J, Oliveriusova J, Orendac M, Kraus JP, Elleder D: Analysis of CBS alleles in Czech and Slovak patients with homocystinuria: report on three novel mutations E176K, W409X and 1223 + 37 del99. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1997 Jul;20(3):363-6. [PubMed:9266356 ]
  31. Tsai MY, Wong PW, Garg U, Hanson NQ, Schwichtenberg K: Two Novel Mutations in the Cystathionine beta-synthase Gene of Homocystinuric Patients. Mol Diagn. 1997 Jun;2(2):129-133. [PubMed:10462600 ]
  32. Gordon RB, Cox AJ, Dawson PA, Emmerson BT, Kraus JP, Dudman NP: Mutational analysis of the cystathionine beta-synthase gene: a splicing mutation, two missense mutations and an insertion in patients with homocystinuria. Mutations in brief no. 120. Online. Hum Mutat. 1998;11(4):332. [PubMed:10215408 ]
  33. Gallagher PM, Naughten E, Hanson NQ, Schwichtenberg K, Bignell M, Yuan M, Ward P, Yap S, Whitehead AS, Tsai MY: Characterization of mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase gene in Irish patients with homocystinuria. Mol Genet Metab. 1998 Dec;65(4):298-302. [PubMed:9889017 ]
  34. de Franchis R, Kraus E, Kozich V, Sebastio G, Kraus JP: Four novel mutations in the cystathionine beta-synthase gene: effect of a second linked mutation on the severity of the homocystinuric phenotype. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(6):453-7. [PubMed:10408774 ]
  35. Gat-Yablonski G, Mandel H, Fowler B, Taleb O, Sela BA: Homocystinuria in the Arab population of Israel: identification of two novel mutations using DGGE analysis. Hum Mutat. 2000 Oct;16(4):372. [PubMed:11013450 ]
  36. Janosik M, Oliveriusova J, Janosikova B, Sokolova J, Kraus E, Kraus JP, Kozich V: Impaired heme binding and aggregation of mutant cystathionine beta-synthase subunits in homocystinuria. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Jun;68(6):1506-13. Epub 2001 May 15. [PubMed:11359213 ]
  37. Castro R, Heil SG, Rivera I, Jakobs C, de Almeida IT, Blom HJ: Molecular genetic analysis of the cystathionine beta-synthase gene in Portuguese homocystinuria patients: three novel mutations. Clin Genet. 2001 Aug;60(2):161-3. [PubMed:11553052 ]
  38. Maclean KN, Gaustadnes M, Oliveriusova J, Janosik M, Kraus E, Kozich V, Kery V, Skovby F, Rudiger N, Ingerslev J, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Kraus JP: High homocysteine and thrombosis without connective tissue disorders are associated with a novel class of cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) mutations. Hum Mutat. 2002 Jun;19(6):641-55. [PubMed:12007221 ]
  39. Gaustadnes M, Wilcken B, Oliveriusova J, McGill J, Fletcher J, Kraus JP, Wilcken DE: The molecular basis of cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency in Australian patients: genotype-phenotype correlations and response to treatment. Hum Mutat. 2002 Aug;20(2):117-26. [PubMed:12124992 ]
  40. Urreizti R, Balcells S, Rodes M, Vilarinho L, Baldellou A, Couce ML, Munoz C, Campistol J, Pinto X, Vilaseca MA, Grinberg D: Spectrum of CBS mutations in 16 homocystinuric patients from the Iberian Peninsula: high prevalence of T191M and absence of I278T or G307S. Hum Mutat. 2003 Jul;22(1):103. [PubMed:12815602 ]
  41. Kruger WD, Wang L, Jhee KH, Singh RH, Elsas LJ 2nd: Cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency in Georgia (USA): correlation of clinical and biochemical phenotype with genotype. Hum Mutat. 2003 Dec;22(6):434-41. [PubMed:14635102 ]
  42. Orendae M, Pronicka E, Kubalska J, Janosik M, Sokolova J, Linnebank M, Koch HG, Kozich V: Identification and functional analysis of two novel mutations in the CBS gene in Polish patients with homocystinuria. Hum Mutat. 2004 Jun;23(6):631. [PubMed:15146473 ]
  43. Linnebank M, Janosik M, Kozich V, Pronicka E, Kubalska J, Sokolova J, Linnebank A, Schmidt E, Leyendecker C, Klockgether T, Kraus JP, Koch HG: The cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) mutation c.1224-2A>C in Central Europe: Vitamin B6 nonresponsiveness and a common ancestral haplotype. Hum Mutat. 2004 Oct;24(4):352-3. [PubMed:15365998 ]
  44. Porto MP, Galdieri LC, Pereira VG, Vergani N, da Rocha JC, Micheletti C, Martins AM, Perez AB, Almeida VD: Molecular analysis of homocystinuria in Brazilian patients. Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Dec;362(1-2):71-8. Epub 2005 Jul 5. [PubMed:15993874 ]
  45. Lee SJ, Lee DH, Yoo HW, Koo SK, Park ES, Park JW, Lim HG, Jung SC: Identification and functional analysis of cystathionine beta-synthase gene mutations in patients with homocystinuria. J Hum Genet. 2005;50(12):648-54. Epub 2005 Oct 5. [PubMed:16205833 ]
  46. Urreizti R, Asteggiano C, Cozar M, Frank N, Vilaseca MA, Grinberg D, Balcells S: Functional assays testing pathogenicity of 14 cystathionine-beta synthase mutations. Hum Mutat. 2006 Feb;27(2):211. [PubMed:16429402 ]