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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00843
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6124
  • HMDBP06536
Name Beta-galactosidase
Synonyms
  1. Acid beta-galactosidase
  2. Elastin receptor 1
  3. Lactase
Gene Name GLB1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific Function Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans. Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays functional roles in the formation of extracellular elastic fibers (elastogenesis) and in the development of connective tissue. Seems to be identical to the elastin-binding protein (EBP), a major component of the non-integrin cell surface receptor expressed on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondroblasts, leukocytes, and certain cancer cell types. In elastin producing cells, associates with tropoelastin intracellularly and functions as a recycling molecular chaperone which facilitates the secretions of tropoelastin and its assembly into elastic fibers.
Pathways
  • Galactose metabolism
  • Glycosaminoglycan degradation
  • Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - ganglio series
  • Lysosome
  • Other glycan degradation
  • sphingolipid metabolism
Reactions
beta-Lactose + Water → Alpha-D-Glucose + Beta-D-Galactose details
beta-D-Galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide + Water → beta-D-Glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide + Beta-D-Galactose details
D-Galactosyl-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-(N-acetylneuraminyl)-D-galactosyl-D-glucosylceramide + Water → N-Acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-(N-acetylneuraminyl)-D-galactosyl-D-glucosylceramide + Beta-D-Galactose details
GM1 + Water → GM2 + Beta-D-Galactose details
+ Water → + Beta-D-Galactose details
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-{[3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-4H-chromen-4-one → Quercetin details
GO Classification
Biological Process
phospholipid metabolic process
galactose catabolic process
keratan sulfate catabolic process
carbohydrate metabolic process
glycosphingolipid metabolic process
Cellular Component
perinuclear region of cytoplasm
lysosomal lumen
Function
ion binding
cation binding
binding
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bonds
hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing o-glycosyl compounds
Molecular Function
beta-galactosidase activity
cation binding
galactoside binding
Process
metabolic process
primary metabolic process
carbohydrate metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. perinuclear region
  2. Isoform 2:Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location Not Available
Locus Not Available
SNPs GLB1
Gene Sequence
>2034 bp
ATGCCGGGGTTCCTGGTTCGCATCCTCCCTCTGTTGCTGGTTCTGCTGCTTCTGGGCCCT
ACGCGCGGCTTGCGCAATGCCACCCAGAGGATGTTTGAAATTGACTATAGCCGGGACTCC
TTCCTCAAGGATGGCCAGCCATTTCGCTACATCTCAGGAAGCATTCACTACTCCCGTGTG
CCCCGCTTCTACTGGAAGGACCGGCTGCTGAAGATGAAGATGGCTGGGCTGAACGCCATC
CAGACGTATGTGCCCTGGAACTTTCATGAGCCCTGGCCAGGACAGTACCAGTTTTCTGAG
GACCATGATGTGGAATATTTTCTTCGGCTGGCTCATGAGCTGGGACTGCTGGTTATCCTG
AGGCCCGGGCCCTACATCTGTGCAGAGTGGGAAATGGGAGGATTACCTGCTTGGCTGCTA
GAGAAAGAGTCTATTCTTCTCCGCTCCTCCGACCCAGATTACCTGGCAGCTGTGGACAAG
TGGTTGGGAGTCCTTCTGCCCAAGATGAAGCCTCTCCTCTATCAGAATGGAGGGCCAGTT
ATAACAGTGCAGGTTGAAAATGAATATGGCAGCTACTTTGCCTGTGATTTTGACTACCTC
GCGTTCCTGCAGAAGCGCTTTCGCCACCATCTGGGGGATGATGTGGTTCTGTTTACCACT
GATGGAGCACATAAAACATTCCTGAAATGTGGGGCCCTGCAGGGCCTCTACACCACGGTG
GACTTTGGAACAGGCAGCAACATCACAGATGCTTTCCTAAGCCAGAGGAAGTGTGAGCCC
AAAGGACCCTTGATCAATTCTGAATTCTATACTGGCTGGCTAGATCACTGGGGCCAACCT
CACTCCACAATCAAGACCGAAGCAGTGGCTTCCTCCCTCTATGATATACTTGCCCGTGGG
GCGAGTGTGAACTTGTACATGTTTATAGGTGGGACCAATTTTGCCTATTGGAATGGGGCC
AACTCACCCTATGCAGCACAGCCCACCAGCTACGACTATGATGCCCCACTGAGTGAGGCT
GGGGACCTCACTGAGAAGTATTTTGCTCTGCGAAACATCATCCAGAAGTTTGAAAAAGTA
CCAGAAGGTCCTATCCCTCCATCTACACCAAAGTTTGCATATGGAAAGGTCACTTTGGAA
AAGTTAAAGACAGTGGGAGCAGCTCTGGACATTCTGTGTCCCTCTGGGCCCATCAAAAGC
CTTTATCCCTTGACATTTATCCAGGTGAAACAGCATTATGGGTTTGTGCTGTACCGGACA
ACACTTCCTCAAGATTGCAGCAACCCAGCACCTCTCTCTTCACCCCTCAATGGAGTCCAC
GATCGAGCATATGTTGCTGTGGATGGGATCCCCCAGGGAGTCCTTGAGCGAAACAATGTG
ATCACTCTGAACATAACAGGGAAAGCTGGAGCCACTCTGGACCTTCTGGTAGAGAACATG
GGACGTGTGAACTATGGTGCATATATCAACGATTTTAAGGGTTTGGTTTCTAACCTGACT
CTCAGTTCCAATATCCTCACGGACTGGACGATCTTTCCACTGGACACTGAGGATGCAGTG
CGCAGCCACCTGGGGGGCTGGGGACACCGTGACAGTGGCCACCATGATGAAGCCTGGGCC
CACAACTCATCCAACTACACGCTCCCGGCCTTTTATATGGGGAACTTCTCCATTCCCAGT
GGGATCCCAGACTTGCCCCAGGACACCTTTATCCAGTTTCCTGGATGGACCAAGGGCCAG
GTCTGGATTAATGGCTTTAACCTTGGCCGCTATTGGCCAGCCCGGGGCCCTCAGTTGACC
TTGTTTGTGCCCCAGCACATCCTGATGACCTCGGCCCCAAACACCATCACCGTGCTGGAA
CTGGAGTGGGCACCCTGCAGCAGTGATGATCCAGAACTATGTGCTGTGACGTTCGTGGAC
AGGCCAGTTATTGGCTCATCTGTGACCTACGATCATCCCTCCAAACCTGTTGAAAAAAGA
CTCATGCCCCCACCCCCGCAAAAAAACAAAGATTCATGGCTGGACCATGTATGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 677
Molecular Weight Not Available
Theoretical pI Not Available
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Beta-galactosidase
MPGFLVRILPLLLVLLLLGPTRGLRNATQRMFEIDYSRDSFLKDGQPFRYISGSIHYSRV
PRFYWKDRLLKMKMAGLNAIQTYVPWNFHEPWPGQYQFSEDHDVEYFLRLAHELGLLVIL
RPGPYICAEWEMGGLPAWLLEKESILLRSSDPDYLAAVDKWLGVLLPKMKPLLYQNGGPV
ITVQVENEYGSYFACDFDYLRFLQKRFRHHLGDDVVLFTTDGAHKTFLKCGALQGLYTTV
DFGTGSNITDAFLSQRKCEPKGPLINSEFYTGWLDHWGQPHSTIKTEAVASSLYDILARG
ASVNLYMFIGGTNFAYWNGANSPYAAQPTSYDYDAPLSEAGDLTEKYFALRNIIQKFEKV
PEGPIPPSTPKFAYGKVTLEKLKTVGAALDILCPSGPIKSLYPLTFIQVKQHYGFVLYRT
TLPQDCSNPAPLSSPLNGVHDRAYVAVDGIPQGVLERNNVITLNITGKAGATLDLLVENM
GRVNYGAYINDFKGLVSNLTLSSNILTDWTIFPLDTEDAVRSHLGGWGHRDSGHHDEAWA
HNSSNYTLPAFYMGNFSIPSGIPDLPQDTFIQFPGWTKGQVWINGFNLGRYWPARGPQLT
LFVPQHILMTSAPNTITVLELEWAPCSSDDPELCAVTFVDRPVIGSSVTYDHPSKPVEKR
LMPPPPQKNKDSWLDHV
GenBank ID Protein 179419
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P16278
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name BGAL_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M22590
GeneCard ID GLB1
GenAtlas ID GLB1
HGNC ID HGNC:4298
References
General References
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  5. Oshima A, Tsuji A, Nagao Y, Sakuraba H, Suzuki Y: Cloning, sequencing, and expression of cDNA for human beta-galactosidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Nov 30;157(1):238-44. [PubMed:3143362 ]
  6. Morreau H, Galjart NJ, Gillemans N, Willemsen R, van der Horst GT, d'Azzo A: Alternative splicing of beta-galactosidase mRNA generates the classic lysosomal enzyme and a beta-galactosidase-related protein. J Biol Chem. 1989 Dec 5;264(34):20655-63. [PubMed:2511208 ]
  7. Yamamoto Y, Hake CA, Martin BM, Kretz KA, Ahern-Rindell AJ, Naylor SL, Mudd M, O'Brien JS: Isolation, characterization, and mapping of a human acid beta-galactosidase cDNA. DNA Cell Biol. 1990 Mar;9(2):119-27. [PubMed:2111707 ]
  8. Hinek A, Rabinovitch M, Keeley F, Okamura-Oho Y, Callahan J: The 67-kD elastin/laminin-binding protein is related to an enzymatically inactive, alternatively spliced form of beta-galactosidase. J Clin Invest. 1993 Mar;91(3):1198-205. [PubMed:8383699 ]
  9. Hinek A: Biological roles of the non-integrin elastin/laminin receptor. Biol Chem. 1996 Jul-Aug;377(7-8):471-80. [PubMed:8922281 ]
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  11. Callahan JW: Molecular basis of GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio disease, type B. Structure-function studies of lysosomal beta-galactosidase and the non-lysosomal beta-galactosidase-like protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Oct 8;1455(2-3):85-103. [PubMed:10571006 ]
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  18. Boustany RM, Qian WH, Suzuki K: Mutations in acid beta-galactosidase cause GM1-gangliosidosis in American patients. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Oct;53(4):881-8. [PubMed:8213816 ]
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  20. Ishii N, Oohira T, Oshima A, Sakuraba H, Endo F, Matsuda I, Sukegawa K, Orii T, Suzuki Y: Clinical and molecular analysis of a Japanese boy with Morquio B disease. Clin Genet. 1995 Aug;48(2):103-8. [PubMed:7586649 ]
  21. Kaye EM, Shalish C, Livermore J, Taylor HA, Stevenson RE, Breakefield XO: beta-Galactosidase gene mutations in patients with slowly progressive GM1 gangliosidosis. J Child Neurol. 1997 Jun;12(4):242-7. [PubMed:9203065 ]
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  23. Silva CM, Severini MH, Sopelsa A, Coelho JC, Zaha A, d'Azzo A, Giugliani R: Six novel beta-galactosidase gene mutations in Brazilian patients with GM1-gangliosidosis. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(5):401-9. [PubMed:10338095 ]
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  27. Caciotti A, Bardelli T, Cunningham J, D'Azzo A, Zammarchi E, Morrone A: Modulating action of the new polymorphism L436F detected in the GLB1 gene of a type-II GM1 gangliosidosis patient. Hum Genet. 2003 Jul;113(1):44-50. Epub 2003 Mar 19. [PubMed:12644936 ]
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  32. Santamaria R, Chabas A, Coll MJ, Miranda CS, Vilageliu L, Grinberg D: Twenty-one novel mutations in the GLB1 gene identified in a large group of GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B patients: possible common origin for the prevalent p.R59H mutation among gypsies. Hum Mutat. 2006 Oct;27(10):1060. [PubMed:16941474 ]
  33. Tatano Y, Takeuchi N, Kuwahara J, Sakuraba H, Takahashi T, Takada G, Itoh K: Elastogenesis in cultured dermal fibroblasts from patients with lysosomal beta-galactosidase, protective protein/cathepsin A and neuraminidase-1 deficiencies. J Med Invest. 2006 Feb;53(1-2):103-12. [PubMed:16538002 ]
  34. Santamaria R, Blanco M, Chabas A, Grinberg D, Vilageliu L: Identification of 14 novel GLB1 mutations, including five deletions, in 19 patients with GM1 gangliosidosis from South America. Clin Genet. 2007 Mar;71(3):273-9. [PubMed:17309651 ]
  35. Gort L, Santamaria R, Grinberg D, Vilageliu L, Chabas A: Identification of a novel pseudodeficiency allele in the GLB1 gene in a carrier of GM1 gangliosidosis. Clin Genet. 2007 Aug;72(2):109-11. [PubMed:17661814 ]
  36. Hofer D, Paul K, Fantur K, Beck M, Burger F, Caillaud C, Fumic K, Ledvinova J, Lugowska A, Michelakakis H, Radeva B, Ramaswami U, Plecko B, Paschke E: GM1 gangliosidosis and Morquio B disease: expression analysis of missense mutations affecting the catalytic site of acid beta-galactosidase. Hum Mutat. 2009 Aug;30(8):1214-21. doi: 10.1002/humu.21031. [PubMed:19472408 ]