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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00850
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6131
  • HMDBP03669
Name Alanine aminotransferase 1
Synonyms
  1. ALT1
  2. GPT 1
  3. Glutamate pyruvate transaminase 1
  4. Glutamic--alanine transaminase 1
  5. Glutamic--pyruvic transaminase 1
Gene Name GPT
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. Participates in cellular nitrogen metabolism and also in liver gluconeogenesis starting with precursors transported from skeletal muscles (By similarity).
Pathways
  • 2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)
  • 4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  • Alanine Metabolism
  • Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
  • Argininemia
  • Argininosuccinic Aciduria
  • Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase Deficiency
  • Citrullinemia Type I
  • Glucose-Alanine Cycle
  • Glutamate Metabolism
  • Homocarnosinosis
  • Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia Syndrome
  • L-alanine degradation via transaminase pathway
  • Lactic Acidemia
  • Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)
  • Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I
  • Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency
  • Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Urea Cycle
Reactions
L-Alanine + Oxoglutaric acid → Pyruvic acid + L-Glutamic acid details
GO Classification
Biological Process
L-alanine catabolic process
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
gluconeogenesis
cellular amino acid biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
Function
carbon-sulfur lyase activity
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
binding
catalytic activity
transferase activity
lyase activity
transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
cofactor binding
pyridoxal phosphate binding
Molecular Function
L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity
pyridoxal phosphate binding
Process
metabolic process
biosynthetic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 8
Locus 8q24.3
SNPs GPT
Gene Sequence
>1491 bp
ATGGCCTCGAGCACAGGTGACCGGAGCCAGGCGGTGAGGCATGGACTGAGGGCGAAGGTG
CTGACGCTGGACGGCATGAACCCGCGTGTGCGGAGAGTGGAGTACGCAGTGCGTGGCCCC
ATAGTGCAGCGAGCCTTGGAGCTGGAGCAGGAGCTGCGCCAGGGTGTGAAGAAGCCTTTC
ACCGAGGTCATCCGTGCCAACATCGGGGACGCACAGGCTATGGGGCAGAGGCCCATCACC
TTCCTGCGCCAGGTCTTGGCCCTCTGTGTTAACCCTGATCTTCTGAGCAGCCCCAACTTC
CCTGACGATGCCAAGAAAAGGGCGGAGCGCATCTTGCAGGCGTGTGGGGGCCACAGTCTG
GGGGCCTACAGCGTCAGCTCCGGCATCCAGCTGATCCGGGAGGACGTGGCGCGGTACATT
GAGAGGCGTGACGGAGGCATCCCTGCGGACCCCAACAACGTCTTCCTGTCCACAGGGGCC
AGCGATGCCATCGTGACGGTGCTGAAGCTGCTGGTGGCCGGCGAGGGCCACACACGCACG
GGTGTGCTCATCCCCATCCCCCAGTACCCACTCTACTCGGCCACGCTGGCAGAGCTGGGC
GCAGTGCAGGTGGATTACTACCTGGACGAGGAGCGTGCCTGGGCGCTGGACGTGGCCGAG
CTTCACCGTGCACTGGGCCAGGCGCGTGACCACTGCCGCCCTCGTGCGCTCTGTGTCATC
AACCCTGGCAACCCCACCGGGCAGGTGCAGACCCGCGAGTGCATCGAGGCCGTGATCCGC
TTCGCCTTCGAAGAGCGGCTCTTTCTGCTGGCGGACGAGGTGTACCAGGACAACGTGTAC
GCCGCGGGTTCGCAGTTCCACTCATTCAAGAAGGTGCTCATGGAGATGGGGCCGCCCTAC
GCCGGGCAGCAGGAGCTTGCCTCCTTCCACTCCACCTCCAAGGGCTACATGGGCGAGTGC
GGGTTCCGCGGCGGCTATGTGGAGGTGGTGAACATGGACGCTGCAGTGCAGCAGCAGATG
CTGAAGCTGATGAGTGTGCGGCTGTGCCCGCCGGTGCCAGGACAGGCCCTGCTGGACCTG
GTGGTCAGCCCGCCCGCGCCCACCGACCCCTCCTTTGCGCAGTTCCAGGCTGAGAAGCAG
GCAGTGCTGGCAGAGCTGGCGGCCAAGGCCAAGCTCACCGAGCAGGTCTTCAATGAGGCT
CCTGGCATCAGCTGCAACCCAGTGCAGGGCGCCATGTACTCCTTCCCGCGCGTGCAGCTG
CCCCCGCGGGCGGTGGAGCGCGCTCAGGAGCTGGGCCTGGCCCCCGATATGTTCTTCTGC
CTGCGCCTCCTGGAGGAGACCGGCATCTGCGTGGTGCCAGGGAGCGGCTTTGGGCAGCGG
GAAGGCACCTACCACTTCCGGATGACCATTCTGCCCCCCTTGGAGAAACTGCGGCTGCTG
CTGGAGAAGCTGAGCAGGTTCCATGCCAAGTTCACCCTCGAGTACTCCTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 496
Molecular Weight 54636.415
Theoretical pI 7.182
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Alanine aminotransferase 1
MASSTGDRSQAVRHGLRAKVLTLDGMNPRVRRVEYAVRGPIVQRALELEQELRQGVKKPF
TEVIRANIGDAQAMGQRPITFLRQVLALCVNPDLLSSPNFPDDAKKRAERILQACGGHSL
GAYSVSSGIQLIREDVARYIERRDGGIPADPNNVFLSTGASDAIVTVLKLLVAGEGHTRT
GVLIPIPQYPLYSATLAELGAVQVDYYLDEERAWALDVAELHRALGQARDHCRPRALCVI
NPGNPTGQVQTRECIEAVIRFAFEERLFLLADEVYQDNVYAAGSQFHSFKKVLMEMGPPY
AGQQELASFHSTSKGYMGECGFRGGYVEVVNMDAAVQQQMLKLMSVRLCPPVPGQALLDL
VVSPPAPTDPSFAQFQAEKQAVLAELAAKAKLTEQVFNEAPGISCNPVQGAMYSFPRVQL
PPRAVERAQELGLAPDMFFCLRLLEETGICVVPGSGFGQREGTYHFRMTILPPLEKLRLL
LEKLSRFHAKFTLEYS
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P24298
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ALAT1_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID BT006992
GeneCard ID GPT
GenAtlas ID GPT
HGNC ID HGNC:4552
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Sohocki MM, Sullivan LS, Harrison WR, Sodergren EJ, Elder FF, Weinstock G, Tanase S, Daiger SP: Human glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT): localization to 8q24.3, cDNA and genomic sequences, and polymorphic sites. Genomics. 1997 Mar 1;40(2):247-52. [PubMed:9119391 ]
  3. Ishiguro M, Takio K, Suzuki M, Oyama R, Matsuzawa T, Titani K: Complete amino acid sequence of human liver cytosolic alanine aminotransferase (GPT) determined by a combination of conventional and mass spectral methods. Biochemistry. 1991 Oct 29;30(43):10451-7. [PubMed:1931970 ]
  4. Yang RZ, Blaileanu G, Hansen BC, Shuldiner AR, Gong DW: cDNA cloning, genomic structure, chromosomal mapping, and functional expression of a novel human alanine aminotransferase. Genomics. 2002 Mar;79(3):445-50. [PubMed:11863375 ]