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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00882
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6164
  • HMDBP03778
Name Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH
Synonyms
  1. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase
  2. AICAR transformylase
  3. ATIC
  4. IMP cyclohydrolase
  5. IMP synthase
  6. Inosinicase
  7. Phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase
Gene Name ATIC
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in IMP cyclohydrolase activity
Specific Function Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 steps in purine biosynthesis.
Pathways
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)
  • Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
  • Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency
  • AICA-Ribosiduria
  • Azathioprine Action Pathway
  • Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller Syndrome
  • IMP biosynthesis via de novo pathway
  • Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)
  • Mercaptopurine Action Pathway
  • Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome
  • Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
  • Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency
  • One carbon pool by folate
  • Purine Metabolism
  • Purine metabolism
  • Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency
  • Thioguanine Action Pathway
  • Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)
  • Xanthinuria type I
  • Xanthinuria type II
Reactions
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + AICAR → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Phosphoribosyl formamidocarboxamide details
Inosinic acid + Water → Phosphoribosyl formamidocarboxamide details
GO Classification
Biological Process
purine nucleobase metabolic process
organ regeneration
'de novo' IMP biosynthetic process
purine ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
mitochondrion
Function
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds
phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase activity
cyclohydrolase activity
imp cyclohydrolase activity
transferase activity
glycine hydroxymethyltransferase activity
hydroxymethyl-, formyl- and related transferase activity
hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in cyclic amidines
transferase activity, transferring one-carbon groups
methyltransferase activity
Molecular Function
IMP cyclohydrolase activity
phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase activity
Process
purine nucleotide metabolic process
purine nucleotide biosynthetic process
metabolic process
nitrogen compound metabolic process
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process
nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolic process
nucleoside phosphate metabolic process
nucleotide metabolic process
purine nucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process
purine ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process
imp biosynthetic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasmic
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 2
Locus 2q35
SNPs ATIC
Gene Sequence
>1779 bp
ATGGCTCCCGGCCAGCTCGCCTTATTTAGTGTCTCTGACAAAACCGGCCTTGTGGAATTT
GCAAGAAACCTGACCGCTCTTGGTTTGAATCTGGTCGCTTCCGGAGGGACTGCAAAAGCT
CTCAGGGATGCTGGTCTGGCAGTCAGAGATGTCTCTGAGTTGACGGGATTTCCTGAAATG
TTGGGGGGACGTGTGAAAACTTTGCATCCTGCAGTCCATGCTGGAATCCTAGCTCGTAAT
ATTCCAGAAGATAATGCTGACATGGCCAGACTTGATTTCAATCTTATAAGAGTTGTTGCC
TGCAATCTCTATCCCTTTGTAAAGACAGTGGCTTCTCCAGGTGTAACTGTTGAGGAGGCT
GTGGAGCAAATTGACATTGGTGGAGTAACCTTACTGAGAGCTGCAGCCAAAAACCACGCT
CGAGTGACAGTGGTGTGTGAACCAGAGGACTATGTGGTGGTGTCCACGGAGATGCAGAGC
TCCGAGAGTAAGGACACCTCCTTGGAGACTAGACGCCAGTTAGCCTTGAAGGCATTCACT
CATACGGCACAATATGATGAAGCAATTTCAGATTATTTCAGGAAACAGTACAGCAAAGGC
GTATCTCAGATGCCCTTGAGATATGGAATGAACCCACATCAGACCCCTGCCCAGCTGTAC
ACACTGCAGCCCAAGCTTCCCATCACAGTTCTAAATGGAGCCCCTGGATTTATAAACTTG
TGCGATGCTTTGAACGCCTGGCAGCTGGTGAAGGAACTCAAGGAGGCTTTAGGTATTCCA
GCCGCTGCCTCTTTCAAACATGTCAGCCCAGCAGGTGCTGCTGTTGGAATTCCACTCAGT
GAAGATGAGGCCAAAGTCTGCATGGTTTATGATCTCTATAAAACCCTCACACCCATCTCA
GCGGCATATGCAAGAGCAAGAGGGGCTGATAGGATGTCTTCATTTGGTGATTTTGTTGCA
TTGTCCGATGTTTGTGATGTACCAACTGCAAAAATTATTTCCAGAGAAGTATCTGATGGT
ATAATTGCCCCAGGATATGAAGAAGAAGCCTTGACAATACTTTCCAAAAAGAAAAATGGA
AACTATTGTGTCCTTCAGATGGACCAATCTTACAAACCAGATGAAAATGAAGTTCGAACT
CTCTTTGGTCTTCATTTAAGCCAGAAGAGAAATAATGGTGTCGTCGACAAGTCATTATTT
AGCAATGTTGTTACCAAAAATAAAGATTTGCCAGAGTCTGCCCTCCGAGACCTCATCGTA
GCCACCATTGCTGTCAAGTACACTCAGTCTAACTCTGTGTGCTACGCCAAGAACGGGCAG
GTTATCGGCATTGGAGCAGGACAGCAGTCTCGTATACACTGCACTCGCCTTGCAGGAGAT
AAGGCAAACTATTGGTGGCTTAGACACCATCCACAAGTGCTTTCGATGAAGTTTAAAACA
GGAGTGAAGAGAGCAGAAATCTCCAATGCCATCGATCAATATGTGACTGGAACCATTGGC
GAGGATGAAGATTTGATAAAGTGGAAGGCACTGTTTGAGGAAGTCCCTGAGTTACTCACT
GAGGCAGAGAAGAAGGAATGGGTTGAGAAACTGACTGAAGTTTCTATCAGCTCTGATGCC
TTCTTCCCTTTCCGAGATAACGTAGACAGAGCTAAAAGGAGTGGTGTGGCGTACATTGCG
GCTCCCTCCGGTTCTGCTGCTGACAAAGTTGTGATTGAGGCCTGCGACGAACTGGGAATC
ATCCTCGCTCATACGAACCTTCGGCTCTTCCACCACTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 592
Molecular Weight 64615.255
Theoretical pI 6.72
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Bifunctional purine biosynthesis protein PURH
MAPGQLALFSVSDKTGLVEFARNLTALGLNLVASGGTAKALRDAGLAVRDVSELTGFPEM
LGGRVKTLHPAVHAGILARNIPEDNADMARLDFNLIRVVACNLYPFVKTVASPGVTVEEA
VEQIDIGGVTLLRAAAKNHARVTVVCEPEDYVVVSTEMQSSESKDTSLETRRQLALKAFT
HTAQYDEAISDYFRKQYSKGVSQMPLRYGMNPHQTPAQLYTLQPKLPITVLNGAPGFINL
CDALNAWQLVKELKEALGIPAAASFKHVSPAGAAVGIPLSEDEAKVCMVYDLYKTLTPIS
AAYARARGADRMSSFGDFVALSDVCDVPTAKIISREVSDGIIAPGYEEEALTILSKKKNG
NYCVLQMDQSYKPDENEVRTLFGLHLSQKRNNGVVDKSLFSNVVTKNKDLPESALRDLIV
ATIAVKYTQSNSVCYAKNGQVIGIGAGQQSRIHCTRLAGDKANYWWLRHHPQVLSMKFKT
GVKRAEISNAIDQYVTGTIGEDEDLIKWKALFEEVPELLTEAEKKEWVEKLTEVSISSDA
FFPFRDNVDRAKRSGVAYIAAPSGSAADKVVIEACDELGIILAHTNLRLFHH
GenBank ID Protein 21104440
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P31939
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PUR9_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AB062403
GeneCard ID ATIC
GenAtlas ID ATIC
HGNC ID HGNC:794
References
General References
  1. Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Pepin KH, Minx P, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Kremitzki C, Oddy L, Du H, Sun H, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Carter J, Cordes M, Harris A, Isak A, van Brunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Abbott S, Armstrong J, Belter EA, Caruso L, Cedroni M, Cotton M, Davidson T, Desai A, Elliott G, Erb T, Fronick C, Gaige T, Haakenson W, Haglund K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Kim K, Kruchowski SS, Strong CM, Grewal N, Goyea E, Hou S, Levy A, Martinka S, Mead K, McLellan MD, Meyer R, Randall-Maher J, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Shah N, Swearengen-Shahid S, Snider J, Strong JT, Thompson J, Yoakum M, Leonard S, Pearman C, Trani L, Radionenko M, Waligorski JE, Wang C, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Maupin R, Latreille P, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Pohl C, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Berkowicz N, Nelson JO, Osborne J, Ding L, Meyer R, Sabo A, Shotland Y, Sinha P, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Jones TA, She X, Ciccarelli FD, Izaurralde E, Taylor J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Cox DR, Huang X, McPherson JD, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Warren WC, Chinwalla AT, Eddy SR, Marra MA, Ovcharenko I, Furey TS, Miller W, Eichler EE, Bork P, Suyama M, Torrents D, Waterston RH, Wilson RK: Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. Nature. 2005 Apr 7;434(7034):724-31. [PubMed:15815621 ]
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  3. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  4. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330 ]
  5. Rikova K, Guo A, Zeng Q, Possemato A, Yu J, Haack H, Nardone J, Lee K, Reeves C, Li Y, Hu Y, Tan Z, Stokes M, Sullivan L, Mitchell J, Wetzel R, Macneill J, Ren JM, Yuan J, Bakalarski CE, Villen J, Kornhauser JM, Smith B, Li D, Zhou X, Gygi SP, Gu TL, Polakiewicz RD, Rush J, Comb MJ: Global survey of phosphotyrosine signaling identifies oncogenic kinases in lung cancer. Cell. 2007 Dec 14;131(6):1190-203. [PubMed:18083107 ]
  6. Rasmussen HH, van Damme J, Puype M, Gesser B, Celis JE, Vandekerckhove J: Microsequences of 145 proteins recorded in the two-dimensional gel protein database of normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Electrophoresis. 1992 Dec;13(12):960-9. [PubMed:1286667 ]
  7. Rayl EA, Moroson BA, Beardsley GP: The human purH gene product, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase. Cloning, sequencing, expression, purification, kinetic analysis, and domain mapping. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 26;271(4):2225-33. [PubMed:8567683 ]
  8. Yamauchi M, Seki N, Mita K, Saito T, Tsuji S, Hongo E, Morimyo M, Shiomi T, Koyama H, Ayusawa D: Isolation of human purH gene expressed in the rodent transformant cells by subtractive enrichment of 3'-untranslated region of human transcript. DNA Res. 1995 Dec 31;2(6):269-75. [PubMed:8867801 ]
  9. Sugita T, Aya H, Ueno M, Ishizuka T, Kawashima K: Characterization of molecularly cloned human 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase. J Biochem. 1997 Aug;122(2):309-13. [PubMed:9378707 ]
  10. Wolan DW, Cheong CG, Greasley SE, Wilson IA: Structural insights into the human and avian IMP cyclohydrolase mechanism via crystal structures with the bound XMP inhibitor. Biochemistry. 2004 Feb 10;43(5):1171-83. [PubMed:14756553 ]
  11. Cheong CG, Wolan DW, Greasley SE, Horton PA, Beardsley GP, Wilson IA: Crystal structures of human bifunctional enzyme aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase/IMP cyclohydrolase in complex with potent sulfonyl-containing antifolates. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23;279(17):18034-45. Epub 2004 Feb 13. [PubMed:14966129 ]
  12. Marie S, Heron B, Bitoun P, Timmerman T, Van Den Berghe G, Vincent MF: AICA-ribosiduria: a novel, neurologically devastating inborn error of purine biosynthesis caused by mutation of ATIC. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 Jun;74(6):1276-81. Epub 2004 Apr 26. [PubMed:15114530 ]