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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00910
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6198
Name 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
Synonyms
  1. HMG-CoA reductase
Gene Name HMGCR
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific Function Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Pathways
  • (R)-mevalonate biosynthesis
  • Alendronate Action Pathway
  • Atorvastatin Action Pathway
  • Bile secretion
  • Cerivastatin Action Pathway
  • CHILD Syndrome
  • Cholesteryl ester storage disease
  • Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)
  • Desmosterolosis
  • Fluvastatin Action Pathway
  • Hyper-IgD syndrome
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Ibandronate Action Pathway
  • Lovastatin Action Pathway
  • Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)
  • Mevalonic aciduria
  • Pamidronate Action Pathway
  • Pravastatin Action Pathway
  • Risedronate Action Pathway
  • Rosuvastatin Action Pathway
  • Simvastatin Action Pathway
  • Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)
  • Steroid Biosynthesis
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Wolman disease
  • Zoledronate Action Pathway
Reactions
(R)-mevalonate + Coenzyme A + NADP → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH details
(R)-mevalonate + Coenzyme A + NADP → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH + Hydrogen Ion details
GO Classification
Biological Process
isoprenoid biosynthetic process
embryo development
negative regulation of MAP kinase activity
cholesterol biosynthetic process
coenzyme A metabolic process
response to nutrient
protein tetramerization
visual learning
aging
cellular lipid metabolic process
positive regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development
Cellular Component
endoplasmic reticulum membrane
peroxisomal membrane
integral to membrane
Component
membrane
cell part
endoplasmic reticulum membrane
membrane part
organelle membrane
intrinsic to membrane
integral to membrane
Function
binding
nucleotide binding
catalytic activity
hydroxymethylglutaryl-coa reductase (nadph) activity
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-oh group of donors, nad or nadp as acceptor
nadp or nadph binding
coenzyme binding
cofactor binding
oxidoreductase activity, acting on ch-oh group of donors
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity
NADPH binding
Process
metabolic process
coenzyme a metabolic process
primary metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
oxidation reduction
lipid metabolic process
cellular lipid metabolic process
isoprenoid metabolic process
isoprenoid biosynthetic process
cofactor metabolic process
coenzyme metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane
  2. Multi-pass membrane protein
  3. Multi-pass membrane protein
  4. Peroxisome membrane
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 5
Locus 5q13.3-q14
SNPs HMGCR
Gene Sequence
>2667 bp
ATGTTGTCAAGACTTTTTCGAATGCATGGCCTCTTTGTGGCCTCCCATCCCTGGGAAGTC
ATAGTGGGGACAGTGACACTGACCATCTGCATGATGTCCATGAACATGTTTACTGGTAAC
AATAAGATCTGTGGTTGGAATTATGAATGTCCAAAGTTTGAAGAGGATGTTTTGAGCAGT
GACATTATAATTCTGACAATAACACGATGCATAGCCATCCTGTATATTTACTTCCAGTTC
CAGAATTTACGTCAACTTGGATCAAAATATATTTTGGGTATTGCTGGCCTTTTCACAATT
TTCTCAAGTTTTGTATTCAGTACAGTTGTCATTCACTTCTTAGACAAAGAATTGACAGGC
TTGAATGAAGCTTTGCCCTTTTTCCTACTTTTGATTGACCTTTCCAGAGCAAGCACATTA
GCAAAGTTTGCCCTCAGTTCCAACTCACAGGATGAAGTAAGGGAAAATATTGCTCGTGGA
ATGGCAATTTTAGGTCCTACGTTTACCCTCGATGCTCTTGTTGAATGTCTTGTGATTGGA
GTTGGTACCATGTCAGGGGTACGTCAGCTTGAAATTATGTGCTGCTTTGGCTGCATGTCA
GTTCTTGCCAACTACTTCGTGTTCATGACTTTCTTCCCAGCTTGTGTGTCCTTGGTATTA
GAGCTTTCTCGGGAAAGCCGCGAGGGTCGTCCAATTTGGCAGCTCAGCCATTTTGCCCGA
GTTTTAGAAGAAGAAGAAAATAAGCCGAATCCTGTAACTCAGAGGGTCAAGATGATTATG
TCTCTAGGCTTGGTTCTTGTTCATGCTCACAGTCGCTGGATAGCTGATCCTTCTCCTCAA
AACAGTACAGCAGATACTTCTAAGGTTTCATTAGGACTGGATGAAAATGTGTCCAAGAGA
ATTGAACCAAGTGTTTCCCTCTGGCAGTTTTATCTCTCTAAAATGATCAGCATGGATATT
GAACAAGTTATTACCCTAAGTTTAGCTCTCCTTCTGGCTGTCAAGTACATCTTCTTTGAA
CAAACAGAGACAGAATCTACACTCTCATTAAAAAACCCTATCACATCTCCTGTAGTGACA
CAAAAGAAAGTCCCAGACAATTGTTGTAGACGTGAACCTATGCTGGTCAGAAATAACCAG
AAATGTGATTCAGTAGAGGAAGAGACAGGGATAAACCGAGAAAGAAAAGTTGAGGTTATA
AAACCCTTAGTGGCTGAAACAGATACCCCAAACAGAGCTACATTTGTGGTTGGTAACTCC
TCCTTACTCGATACTTCATCAGTACTGGTGACACAGGAACCTGAAATTGAACTTCCCAGG
GAACCTCGGCCTAATGAAGAATGTCTACAGATACTTGGGAATGCAGAGAAAGGTGCAAAA
TTCCTTAGTGATGCTGAGATCATCCAGTTAGTCAATGCTAAGCATATCCCAGCCTACAAG
TTGGAAACTCTGATGGAAACTCATGAGCGTGGTGTATCTATTCGCCGACAGTTACTTTCC
AAGAAGCTTTCAGAACCTTCTTCTCTCCAGTACCTACCTTACAGGGATTATAATTACTCC
TTGGTGATGGGAGCTTGTTGTGAGAATGTTATTGGATATATGCCCATCCCTGTTGGAGTG
GCAGGACCCCTTTGCTTAGATGAAAAAGAATTTCAGGTTCCAATGGCAACAACAGAAGGT
TGTCTTGTGGCCAGCACCAATAGAGGCTGCAGAGCAATAGGTCTTGGTGGAGGTGCCAGC
AGCCGAGTCCTTGCAGATGGGATGACTCGTGGCCCAGTTGTGCGTCTTCCACGTGCTTGT
GACTCTGCAGAAGTGAAAGCCTGGCTCGAAACATCTGAAGGGTTCGCAGTGATAAAGGAG
GCATTTGACAGCACTAGCAGATTTGCACGTCTACAGAAACTTCATACAAGTATAGCTGGA
CGCAACCTTTATATCCGTTTCCAGTCCAGGTCAGGGGATGCCATGGGGATGAACATGATT
TCAAAGGGTACAGAGAAAGCACTTTCAAAACTTCACGAGTATTTCCCTGAAATGCAGATT
CTAGCCGTTAGTGGTAACTATTGTACTGACAAGAAACCTGCTGCTATAAATTGGATAGAG
GGAAGAGGAAAATCTGTTGTTTGTGAAGCTGTCATTCCAGCCAAGGTTGTCAGAGAAGTA
TTAAAGACTACCACAGAGGCTATGATTGAGGTCAACATTAACAAGAATTTAGTGGGCTCT
GCCATGGCTGGGAGCATAGGAGGCTACAACGCCCATGCAGCAAACATTGTCACCGCCATC
TACATTGCCTGTGGACAGGATGCAGCACAGAATGTTGGTAGTTCAAACTGTATTACTTTA
ATGGAAGCAAGTGGTCCCACAAATGAAGATTTATATATCAGCTGCACCATGCCATCTATA
GAGATAGGAACGGTGGGTGGTGGGACCAACCTACTACCTCAGCAAGCCTGTTTGCAGATG
CTAGGTGTTCAAGGAGCATGCAAAGATAATCCTGGGGAAAATGCCCGGCAGCTTGCCCGA
ATTGTGTGTGGGACCGTAATGGCTGGGGAATTGTCACTTATGGCAGCATTGGCAGCAGGA
CATCTTGTCAAAAGTCACATGATTCACAACAGGTCGAAGATCAATTTACAAGACCTCCAA
GGAGCTTGCACCAAGAAGACAGCCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 888
Molecular Weight 97475.155
Theoretical pI 6.735
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase
MLSRLFRMHGLFVASHPWEVIVGTVTLTICMMSMNMFTGNNKICGWNYECPKFEEDVLSS
DIIILTITRCIAILYIYFQFQNLRQLGSKYILGIAGLFTIFSSFVFSTVVIHFLDKELTG
LNEALPFFLLLIDLSRASTLAKFALSSNSQDEVRENIARGMAILGPTFTLDALVECLVIG
VGTMSGVRQLEIMCCFGCMSVLANYFVFMTFFPACVSLVLELSRESREGRPIWQLSHFAR
VLEEEENKPNPVTQRVKMIMSLGLVLVHAHSRWIADPSPQNSTADTSKVSLGLDENVSKR
IEPSVSLWQFYLSKMISMDIEQVITLSLALLLAVKYIFFEQTETESTLSLKNPITSPVVT
QKKVPDNCCRREPMLVRNNQKCDSVEEETGINRERKVEVIKPLVAETDTPNRATFVVGNS
SLLDTSSVLVTQEPEIELPREPRPNEECLQILGNAEKGAKFLSDAEIIQLVNAKHIPAYK
LETLMETHERGVSIRRQLLSKKLSEPSSLQYLPYRDYNYSLVMGACCENVIGYMPIPVGV
AGPLCLDEKEFQVPMATTEGCLVASTNRGCRAIGLGGGASSRVLADGMTRGPVVRLPRAC
DSAEVKAWLETSEGFAVIKEAFDSTSRFARLQKLHTSIAGRNLYIRFQSRSGDAMGMNMI
SKGTEKALSKLHEYFPEMQILAVSGNYCTDKKPAAINWIEGRGKSVVCEAVIPAKVVREV
LKTTTEAMIEVNINKNLVGSAMAGSIGGYNAHAANIVTAIYIACGQDAAQNVGSSNCITL
MEASGPTNEDLYISCTMPSIEIGTVGGGTNLLPQQACLQMLGVQGACKDNPGENARQLAR
IVCGTVMAGELSLMAALAAGHLVKSHMIHNRSKINLQDLQGACTKKTA
GenBank ID Protein 306865
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P04035
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name HMDH_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M11058
GeneCard ID HMGCR
GenAtlas ID HMGCR
HGNC ID HGNC:5006
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Cargill M, Altshuler D, Ireland J, Sklar P, Ardlie K, Patil N, Shaw N, Lane CR, Lim EP, Kalyanaraman N, Nemesh J, Ziaugra L, Friedland L, Rolfe A, Warrington J, Lipshutz R, Daley GQ, Lander ES: Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes. Nat Genet. 1999 Jul;22(3):231-8. [PubMed:10391209 ]
  3. Luskey KL, Stevens B: Human 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Conserved domains responsible for catalytic activity and sterol-regulated degradation. J Biol Chem. 1985 Aug 25;260(18):10271-7. [PubMed:2991281 ]
  4. Istvan ES, Palnitkar M, Buchanan SK, Deisenhofer J: Crystal structure of the catalytic portion of human HMG-CoA reductase: insights into regulation of activity and catalysis. EMBO J. 2000 Mar 1;19(5):819-30. [PubMed:10698924 ]
  5. Istvan ES, Deisenhofer J: Structural mechanism for statin inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. Science. 2001 May 11;292(5519):1160-4. [PubMed:11349148 ]