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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00931
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6219
  • HMDBP03323
Name Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
Synonyms
  1. Dimethylallyltranstransferase
  2. Farnesyltranstransferase
  3. GGPP synthase
  4. GGPPSase
  5. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
  6. Geranyltranstransferase
  7. (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase
  8. Farnesyl diphosphate synthase
Gene Name GGPS1
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in isoprenoid biosynthetic process
Specific Function Catalyzes the trans-addition of the three molecules of IPP onto DMAPP to form geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, an important precursor of carotenoids and geranylated proteins.
Pathways
  • Alendronate Action Pathway
  • Atorvastatin Action Pathway
  • Cerivastatin Action Pathway
  • CHILD Syndrome
  • Cholesteryl ester storage disease
  • Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)
  • Desmosterolosis
  • farnesyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • Fluvastatin Action Pathway
  • geranyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthesis
  • Hyper-IgD syndrome
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Ibandronate Action Pathway
  • Lovastatin Action Pathway
  • Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)
  • Mevalonic aciduria
  • Pamidronate Action Pathway
  • Pravastatin Action Pathway
  • Risedronate Action Pathway
  • Rosuvastatin Action Pathway
  • Simvastatin Action Pathway
  • Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)
  • Steroid Biosynthesis
  • Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
  • Wolman disease
  • Zoledronate Action Pathway
Reactions
Dimethylallylpyrophosphate + Isopentenyl pyrophosphate → Pyrophosphate + Geranyl-PP details
Geranyl-PP + Isopentenyl pyrophosphate → Pyrophosphate + Farnesyl pyrophosphate details
Farnesyl pyrophosphate + Isopentenyl pyrophosphate → Pyrophosphate + Geranylgeranyl-PP details
GO Classification
Biological Process
farnesyl diphosphate biosynthetic process
geranyl diphosphate biosynthetic process
cholesterol biosynthetic process
geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthetic process
isoprenoid metabolic process
Cellular Component
cytosol
Molecular Function
dimethylallyltranstransferase activity
geranyltranstransferase activity
farnesyltranstransferase activity
metal ion binding
Process
metabolic process
primary metabolic process
lipid metabolic process
cellular lipid metabolic process
isoprenoid metabolic process
isoprenoid biosynthetic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 1
Locus 1q43
SNPs GGPS1
Gene Sequence
>903 bp
ATGGAGAAGACTCAAGAAACAGTCCAAAGAATTCTTCTAGAACCCTATAAATACTTACTT
CAGTTACCAGGTAAACAAGTGAGAACCAAACTTTCACAGGCATTTAATCATTGGCTGAAA
GTTCCAGAGGACAAGCTACAGATTATTATTGAAGTGACAGAAATGTTGCATAATGCCAGT
TTACTCATCGATGATATTGAAGACAACTCAAAACTCCGACGTGGCTTTCCAGTGGCCCAC
AGCATCTATGGAATCCCATCTGTCATCAATTCTGCCAATTACGTGTATTTCCTTGGCTTG
GAGAAAGTCTTAACCCTTGATCACCCAGATGCAGTGAAGCTTTTTACCCGCCAGCTTTTG
GAACTCCATCAGGGACAAGGCCTAGATATTTACTGGAGGGATAATTACACTTGTCCCACT
GAAGAAGAATATAAAGCTATGGTGCTGCAGAAAACAGGTGGACTGTTTGGATTAGCAGTA
GGTCTCATGCAGTTGTTCTCTGATTACAAAGAAGATTTAAAACCGCTACTTAATACACTT
GGGCTCTTTTTCCAAATTAGGGATGATTATGCTAATCTACACTCCAAAGAATATAGTGAA
AACAAAAGTTTTTGTGAAGATCTGACAGAGGGAAAGTTCTCATTTCCTACTATTCATGCT
ATTTGGTCAAGGCCTGAAAGCACCCAGGTGCAGAATATCTTGCGCCAGAGAACAGAAAAC
ATAGATATAAAAAAATACTGTGTACATTATCTTGAGGATGTAGGTTCTTTTGAATACACT
CGTAATACCCTTAAAGAGCTTGAAGCTAAAGCCTATAAACAGATTGATGCACGTGGTGGG
AACCCTGAGCTAGTAGCCTTAGTAAAACACTTAAGTAAGATGTTCAAAGAAGAAAATGAA
TAA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 300
Molecular Weight 34870.625
Theoretical pI 6.14
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
MEKTQETVQRILLEPYKYLLQLPGKQVRTKLSQAFNHWLKVPEDKLQIIIEVTEMLHNAS
LLIDDIEDNSKLRRGFPVAHSIYGIPSVINSANYVYFLGLEKVLTLDHPDAVKLFTRQLL
ELHQGQGLDIYWRDNYTCPTEEEYKAMVLQKTGGLFGLAVGLMQLFSDYKEDLKPLLNTL
GLFFQIRDDYANLHSKEYSENKSFCEDLTEGKFSFPTIHAIWSRPESTQVQNILRQRTEN
IDIKKYCVHYLEDVGSFEYTRNTLKELEAKAYKQIDARGGNPELVALVKHLSKMFKEENE
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID O95749
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GGPPS_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AB017971
GeneCard ID GGPS1
GenAtlas ID GGPS1
HGNC ID HGNC:4249
References
General References
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  4. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  5. Ericsson J, Greene JM, Carter KC, Shell BK, Duan DR, Florence C, Edwards PA: Human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase: isolation of the cDNA, chromosomal mapping and tissue expression. J Lipid Res. 1998 Sep;39(9):1731-9. [PubMed:9741684 ]
  6. Kuzuguchi T, Morita Y, Sagami I, Sagami H, Ogura K: Human geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. cDNA cloning and expression. J Biol Chem. 1999 Feb 26;274(9):5888-94. [PubMed:10026212 ]
  7. Kainou T, Kawamura K, Tanaka K, Matsuda H, Kawamukai M: Identification of the GGPS1 genes encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from mouse and human. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Mar 25;1437(3):333-40. [PubMed:10101267 ]
  8. Kavanagh KL, Dunford JE, Bunkoczi G, Russell RG, Oppermann U: The crystal structure of human geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase reveals a novel hexameric arrangement and inhibitory product binding. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 4;281(31):22004-12. Epub 2006 May 11. [PubMed:16698791 ]