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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP01036
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 6324
  • HMDBP04897
Name Cytochrome P450 2C9
Synonyms
  1. (R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase
  2. (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase
  3. (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase
  4. CYPIIC9
  5. Cytochrome P-450MP
  6. Cytochrome P450 MP-4
  7. Cytochrome P450 MP-8
  8. Cytochrome P450 PB-1
  9. S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase
Gene Name CYP2C9
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific Function Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Pathways
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism
  • Caffeine Metabolism
  • Celecoxib Action Pathway
  • Celecoxib Metabolism Pathway
  • Chemical carcinogenesis
  • Clopidogrel Action Pathway
  • Clopidogrel Metabolism Pathway
  • Cyclophosphamide Action Pathway
  • Cyclophosphamide Metabolism Pathway
  • Doxepin Metabolism Pathway
  • Drug metabolism - cytochrome P450
  • Fluoxetine Action Pathway
  • Fluoxetine Metabolism Pathway
  • Ibuprofen Action Pathway
  • Ibuprofen Metabolism Pathway
  • Ifosfamide Action Pathway
  • Ifosfamide Metabolism Pathway
  • Linoleic acid metabolism
  • Metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450
  • Nevirapine Metabolism Pathway
  • Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Action Pathway
  • Retinol metabolism
  • Rosiglitazone Metabolism Pathway
  • Serotonergic synapse
  • Sorafenib Metabolism Pathway
  • Valproic Acid Metabolism Pathway
Reactions
(+)-Limonene + NADPH + Oxygen → (+)-trans-Carveol + NADP + Water details
D-Limonene + NADPH + Oxygen → (-)-trans-Carveol + NADP + Water details
D-Limonene + NADPH + Oxygen → (S)-p-Mentha-1,8-dien-7-ol + NADP + Water details
GO Classification
Biological Process
oxidative demethylation
exogenous drug catabolic process
monocarboxylic acid metabolic process
monoterpenoid metabolic process
steroid metabolic process
xenobiotic metabolic process
urea metabolic process
Cellular Component
endoplasmic reticulum membrane
Function
ion binding
cation binding
metal ion binding
binding
catalytic activity
transition metal ion binding
electron carrier activity
iron ion binding
monooxygenase activity
heme binding
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
electron carrier activity
caffeine oxidase activity
iron ion binding
steroid hydroxylase activity
(R)-limonene 6-monooxygenase activity
(S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase activity
heme binding
(S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase activity
drug binding
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Peripheral membrane protein
  2. Peripheral membrane protein
  3. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane
  4. Microsome membrane
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 10
Locus 10q24
SNPs CYP2C9
Gene Sequence
>1473 bp
ATGGATTCTCTTGTGGTCCTTGTGCTCTGTCTCTCATGTTTGCTTCTCCTTTCACTCTGG
AGACAGAGCTCTGGGAGAGGAAAACTCCCTCCTGGCCCCACTCCTCTCCCAGTGATTGGA
AATATCCTACAGATAGGTATTAAGGACATCAGCAAATCCTTAACCAATCTCTCAAAGGTC
TATGGCCCTGTGTTCACTCTGTATTTTGGCCTGAAACCCATAGTGGTGCTGCATGGATAT
GAAGCAGTGAAGGAAGCCCTGATTGATCTTGGAGAGGAGTTTTCTGGAAGAGGCATTTTC
CCACTGGCTGAAAGAGCTAACAGAGGATTTGGAATTGTTTTCAGCAATGGAAAGAAATGG
AAGGAGATCCGGCGTTTCTCCCTCATGACGCTGCGGAATTTTGGGATGGGGAAGAGGAGC
ATTGAGGACCGTGTTCAAGAGGAAGCCCGCTGCCTTGTGGAGGAGTTGAGAAAAACCAAG
GCCTCACCCTGTGATCCCACTTTCATCCTGGGCTGTGCTCCCTGCAATGTGATCTGCTCC
ATTATTTTCCATAAACGTTTTGATTATAAAGATCAGCAATTTCTTAACTTAATGGAAAAG
TTGAATGAAAACATCAAGATTTTGAGCAGCCCCTGGATCCAGATCTGCAATAATTTTTCT
CCTATCATTGATTACTTCCCGGGAACTCACAACAAATTACTTAAAAACGTTGCTTTTATG
AAAAGTTATATTTTGGAAAAAGTAAAAGAACACCAAGAATCAATGGACATGAACAACCCT
CAGGACTTTATTGATTGCTTCCTGATGAAAATGGAGAAGGAAAAGCACAACCAACCATCT
GAATTTACTATTGAAAGCTTGGAAAACACTGCAGTTGACTTGTTTGGAGCTGGGACAGAG
ACGACAAGCACAACCCTGAGATATGCTCTCCTTCTCCTGCTGAAGCACCCAGAGGTCACA
GCTAAAGTCCAGGAAGAGATTGAACGTGTGATTGGCAGAAACCGGAGCCCCTGCATGCAA
GACAGGAGCCACATGCCCTACACAGATGCTGTGGTGCACGAGGTCCAGAGATACATTGAC
CTTCTCCCCACCAGCCTGCCCCATGCAGTGACCTGTGACATTAAATTCAGAAACTATCTC
ATTCCCAAGGGCACAACCATATTAATTTCCCTGACTTCTGTGCTACATGACAACAAAGAA
TTTCCCAACCCAGAGATGTTTGACCCTCATCACTTTCTGGATGAAGGTGGCAATTTTAAG
AAAAGTAAATACTTCATGCCTTTCTCAGCAGGAAAACGGATTTGTGTGGGAGAAGCCCTG
GCCGGCATGGAGCTGTTTTTATTCCTGACCTCCATTTTACAGAACTTTAACCTGAAATCT
CTGGTTGACCCAAAGAACCTTGACACCACTCCAGTTGTCAATGGATTTGCCTCTGTGCCG
CCCTTCTACCAGCTGTGCTTCATTCCTGTCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 490
Molecular Weight 55627.365
Theoretical pI 7.907
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Cytochrome P450 2C9
MDSLVVLVLCLSCLLLLSLWRQSSGRGKLPPGPTPLPVIGNILQIGIKDISKSLTNLSKV
YGPVFTLYFGLKPIVVLHGYEAVKEALIDLGEEFSGRGIFPLAERANRGFGIVFSNGKKW
KEIRRFSLMTLRNFGMGKRSIEDRVQEEARCLVEELRKTKASPCDPTFILGCAPCNVICS
IIFHKRFDYKDQQFLNLMEKLNENIKILSSPWIQICNNFSPIIDYFPGTHNKLLKNVAFM
KSYILEKVKEHQESMDMNNPQDFIDCFLMKMEKEKHNQPSEFTIESLENTAVDLFGAGTE
TTSTTLRYALLLLLKHPEVTAKVQEEIERVIGRNRSPCMQDRSHMPYTDAVVHEVQRYID
LLPTSLPHAVTCDIKFRNYLIPKGTTILISLTSVLHDNKEFPNPEMFDPHHFLDEGGNFK
KSKYFMPFSAGKRICVGEALAGMELFLFLTSILQNFNLKSLVDPKNLDTTPVVNGFASVP
PFYQLCFIPV
GenBank ID Protein 32891803
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P11712
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CP2C9_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AY341248
GeneCard ID CYP2C9
GenAtlas ID CYP2C9
HGNC ID HGNC:2623
References
General References
  1. Komori M, Hashizume T, Ohi H, Miura T, Kitada M, Nagashima K, Kamataki T: Cytochrome P-450 in human liver microsomes: high-performance liquid chromatographic isolation of three forms and their characterization. J Biochem. 1988 Dec;104(6):912-6. [PubMed:3243766 ]
  2. Solus JF, Arietta BJ, Harris JR, Sexton DP, Steward JQ, McMunn C, Ihrie P, Mehall JM, Edwards TL, Dawson EP: Genetic variation in eleven phase I drug metabolism genes in an ethnically diverse population. Pharmacogenomics. 2004 Oct;5(7):895-931. [PubMed:15469410 ]
  3. Meehan RR, Gosden JR, Rout D, Hastie ND, Friedberg T, Adesnik M, Buckland R, van Heyningen V, Fletcher J, Spurr NK, et al.: Human cytochrome P-450 PB-1: a multigene family involved in mephenytoin and steroid oxidations that maps to chromosome 10. Am J Hum Genet. 1988 Jan;42(1):26-37. [PubMed:2827463 ]
  4. Kimura S, Pastewka J, Gelboin HV, Gonzalez FJ: cDNA and amino acid sequences of two members of the human P450IIC gene subfamily. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Dec 10;15(23):10053-4. [PubMed:3697070 ]
  5. Yasumori T, Kawano S, Nagata K, Shimada M, Yamazoe Y, Kato R: Nucleotide sequence of a human liver cytochrome P-450 related to the rat male specific form. J Biochem. 1987 Nov;102(5):1075-82. [PubMed:2963808 ]
  6. Umbenhauer DR, Martin MV, Lloyd RS, Guengerich FP: Cloning and sequence determination of a complementary DNA related to human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 S-mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase. Biochemistry. 1987 Feb 24;26(4):1094-9. [PubMed:3032244 ]
  7. Ged C, Umbenhauer DR, Bellew TM, Bork RW, Srivastava PK, Shinriki N, Lloyd RS, Guengerich FP: Characterization of cDNAs, mRNAs, and proteins related to human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase. Biochemistry. 1988 Sep 6;27(18):6929-40. [PubMed:3196692 ]
  8. Ohgiya S, Komori M, Ohi H, Shiramatsu K, Shinriki N, Kamataki T: Six-base deletion occurring in messages of human cytochrome P-450 in the CYP2C subfamily results in reduction of tolbutamide hydroxylase activity. Biochem Int. 1992 Sep;27(6):1073-81. [PubMed:1445376 ]
  9. Shimada T, Misono KS, Guengerich FP: Human liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase, a prototype of genetic polymorphism in oxidative drug metabolism. Purification and characterization of two similar forms involved in the reaction. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jan 15;261(2):909-21. [PubMed:3079764 ]
  10. Srivastava PK, Yun CH, Beaune PH, Ged C, Guengerich FP: Separation of human liver microsomal tolbutamide hydroxylase and (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Mol Pharmacol. 1991 Jul;40(1):69-79. [PubMed:1857342 ]
  11. Haining RL, Hunter AP, Veronese ME, Trager WF, Rettie AE: Allelic variants of human cytochrome P450 2C9: baculovirus-mediated expression, purification, structural characterization, substrate stereoselectivity, and prochiral selectivity of the wild-type and I359L mutant forms. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1996 Sep 15;333(2):447-58. [PubMed:8809086 ]
  12. Sandhu P, Baba T, Guengerich FP: Expression of modified cytochrome P450 2C10 (2C9) in Escherichia coli, purification, and reconstitution of catalytic activity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 Nov 1;306(2):443-50. [PubMed:8215449 ]
  13. Miyazawa M, Shindo M, Shimada T: Metabolism of (+)- and (-)-limonenes to respective carveols and perillyl alcohols by CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002 May;30(5):602-7. [PubMed:11950794 ]
  14. Williams PA, Cosme J, Ward A, Angove HC, Matak Vinkovic D, Jhoti H: Crystal structure of human cytochrome P450 2C9 with bound warfarin. Nature. 2003 Jul 24;424(6947):464-8. Epub 2003 Jul 13. [PubMed:12861225 ]
  15. Stubbins MJ, Harries LW, Smith G, Tarbit MH, Wolf CR: Genetic analysis of the human cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 locus. Pharmacogenetics. 1996 Oct;6(5):429-39. [PubMed:8946475 ]
  16. Bhasker CR, Miners JO, Coulter S, Birkett DJ: Allelic and functional variability of cytochrome P4502C9. Pharmacogenetics. 1997 Feb;7(1):51-8. [PubMed:9110362 ]
  17. Imai J, Ieiri I, Mamiya K, Miyahara S, Furuumi H, Nanba E, Yamane M, Fukumaki Y, Ninomiya H, Tashiro N, Otsubo K, Higuchi S: Polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 gene in Japanese epileptic patients: genetic analysis of the CYP2C9 locus. Pharmacogenetics. 2000 Feb;10(1):85-9. [PubMed:10739176 ]
  18. Dickmann LJ, Rettie AE, Kneller MB, Kim RB, Wood AJ, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR, Schwarz UI: Identification and functional characterization of a new CYP2C9 variant (CYP2C9*5) expressed among African Americans. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Aug;60(2):382-7. [PubMed:11455026 ]
  19. Higashi MK, Veenstra DL, Kondo LM, Wittkowsky AK, Srinouanprachanh SL, Farin FM, Rettie AE: Association between CYP2C9 genetic variants and anticoagulation-related outcomes during warfarin therapy. JAMA. 2002 Apr 3;287(13):1690-8. [PubMed:11926893 ]